A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

How to Write a Bibliography
Works Cited in MLA Style 7th ed.

How to Write a Bibliography
or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed. 2003
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References to MLA Handbook 6th ed. 2003 have been updated to MLA Handbook 7th ed. 2009 on this site. Major changes include adding the medium of publication in every entry (such as "Print"), italicizing rather than underlining book titles, and using the word "Web" instead of citing the actual URL of websites.

Links to related pages:

1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)


For documentation in APA style, please see links at APA Style: American Psychological Association, or refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. 2009 (Paperback)
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition 2009 (Paperback)

Concise Rules of APA Style by American Psychological Association 6th ed. 2009 (Paperback)
Concise Rules of APA Style (APA, Concise Rules of APA Style) 6th ed. 2009 (Paperback)

For a detailed treatment on how to write a bibliography or Works Cited page in MLA style with many more examples, please use the official MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition

MLA Handbook 6th edition:
MLA Handbook 6th ed.

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition by Modern Language Association
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition
by Modern Language Association

The MLA Pocket Handbook: Rules for Format & Documentation by Jill Rossiter
The MLA Pocket Handbook: Rules for Format & Documentation by Jill Rossiter



MLA Style Essay Format - Word Tutorial by David Taylor, University of Maryland University College.

MLA style essay formatting: margins, font, line spacing, header, info block, title, indentation, block quote, Works Cited. YouTube video, 10:00 min. Published on Jan 10, 2011. Transcript of Video: Seventh Edition of MLA Style Essay Format.

All Works Cited entries should be typed double-spaced. Second and subsequent lines indented.

In order to keep this Web page short and more mobile friendly, SINGLE rather than DOUBLE SPACE is used here with no indentation for second and subsequent lines. Please see Works Cited Sample Page for a properly double-spaced and indented Bibliography or Works Cited page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you are seeking is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition.

Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2" (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed.

CONTENTS:

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three authors or editors
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors
  5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  6. Book with no author or editor stated (author unknown, editor unknown). See also Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
  7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated (author unknown)
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated (author unknown)
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)  
14. Advertisement

15. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with no author stated (author unknown)
16. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with an author
17. Book, movie or film review
18. CD-ROM, DVD See also 35. Tape Recording: Audiocassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip
19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
20. Definition from a dictionary
21. Film, movie
22. Government publication
23. Internet citations or Web citations - citing electronic sources
24. Interview
25. Lecture
26. Letter, editorial
27. Map, chart
28. Musical composition, musical scores
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
30. Patent
31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
32. Radio, Television Broadcast
33. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
34. Software on floppy disk
35. Tape Recording: Audiocassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip
36. Unpublished dissertations, theses

1. Book with one author or editor:

Baker, Tim, ed. Golf Tips from the Pros. Cincinnati, OH: David, 2006. Print.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003. Print.

N.p. = No place of publication indicated.

Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. Spec. illus. ed. New York: Broadway, 2004. Print.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from 4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Print.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York: Hyperion, 2005. Print.

Kunkel, Edward J. Pharaoh's Pump. Warren, OH: Peg's Hobby Print Shop, 1962. Print.

Note: The above citation is for a privately published or self-published book.

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001. Print.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times. Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Print.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Print.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999. Print.

---. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Print.

The above two books are by the same author. You need not repeat the author's name. Use three dashes and a period in place of the same author's name.

Schecter, I.J. Slices: Observations from the Wrong Side of the Fairway. Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2006. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Taming of the Shrew. Ed. John Crowther. New York: Spark, 2004. Print.

---. Taming of the Shrew. Ed. Roma Gill. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999. Print.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Print.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994. Print.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995. Print.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Print.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey, 2001. Print.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Print.

Hall, John Whitney, and John Grayson Kirk, eds. History of the World: Earliest Times to the Present Day. North Dighton, MA: World, 2005. Print.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can't Be Jammed. 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Print.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer's Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005. Print.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square, 1992. Print.

3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam's, 2002. Print.

Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d'Abadie. The Power of Focus for College Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Print.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let's Go: Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin's, 1998. Print.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815. 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Print.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. Print.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use "et al." from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning "and others" after the first author or editor named.  

Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003. Print.

or,

Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003. Print.

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Print.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Print.

or,

Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.  Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Print.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. Print.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994. Print.

O'Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999. Print.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa. Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Print.

Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by

6. Book with no author or editor stated (author unknown, editor unknown): (See also Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts)

Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999. Print.

Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. Print.

The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999. Print.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. Print.

7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita Kimber and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. Print.

Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed. Stewart Ross. Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989. Print.

Although not essential for simple citation purposes, supplementary information may be added to the above citation for clarification:

Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed. Stewart Ross. Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989. Trans. of  Les Jours de L'histoire: 14-18 La Premiere Guerre Mondiale. Paris: Casterman, 1986. Print.

The original text of the above work was written in French by Annie Brown, Lionel Dumarche, Phillipe Glorennec, Jean-Marcel Humbert and Jean-Pierre Verney.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. "Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength." What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Print.

Wilcox, Robert K. "Flying Blind." Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival. Comp. and ed. James O'Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999. 211-22. Print.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated (author unknown):

"Nazi Party." New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed. Print.

"Tajikistan." World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed. Print.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

Kibby, Michael W. "Dyslexia." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Print.

Midge, T. "Powwows." Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Marshall, 1997. Print.

11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated (author unknown):

"100 Years of Dust and Glory." Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. Print.

"China Goes Soft on the Baby Talk." Harold Sun [Victoria] 6 Aug. 2007: 22. Print.

"E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. Print.

"FAA Rules Allow Hobbyist Drones, Not Commercial." USA Today 24 June 2014: 2A. Print.

"Google Ups Wearables Fight." Metro   [Toronto], 1 Sept. 2015: 11. Print.

"Hungary Putting Up Fence to Halt Migrants." Toronto Star 14 July 2015: A1. Print.

"Iraq Ratifies Chemical Weapons Ban." Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 12A. Print.

"McDonald's Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food." National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. Print.

"Pope Names New Bishop for Da Nang, Vietnam." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: A6. Print.

"Shaw Communications Buys Wind Mobile for $1.6 B." Toronto Star 17 Dec. 2015: A8. Print.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:

Use "+" for pages that are not consecutive. 

Example: When numbering pages, use "70-75" if page numbers are consecutive. Use "A1+" if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.

When using MLA style, note that there is no period after the month. The period in "Jan." is for the abbreviation of January.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June and July - these three months are NOT abbreviated while all other months are abbreviated: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. If the publication date is June 1, 2014, citation order will be Date Month Year: 1 June 2014.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, "Date, Month, Year" are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only "Month, Year" are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal may be treated somewhat differently:

Gould, Fred, Krisztian Magori, and Yunxin Huang. "Genetic Strategies for
        Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases." American Scientist  94.3 (2006): 238-246. Print.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
        Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. Print.

The above citation shows: Author's name, Article title (in quotes), Name of scholarly journal (italicized), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), Page number, and in Print medium. If the article is accessed online, indicate by changing the "Print" medium to "Web" and add the access date at the end. See 23. Internet citations or Web citations - citing electronic sources (e).

Andrew-Gee, Eric. "Lawyers Have Objections About Joining Paperless Digital Age." Toronto Star 18 Apr. 2015: GT1. Print.

Cave, Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle." Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 2001: 36. Print.

Choo, Lily. "Celebrating the Year of the Goat" Epoch Times  [Toronto] 19 - 25 Feb. 2015: B3. Print.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. "Shaken and Stirred." Atlantic Monthly Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Print.

Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq." Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Print.

Crook, John. "Batty About Betty: The Career of a TV Icon." Starweek [Toronto] 6-12 Aug. 2011: 5. Print.

Dale, Daniel. "Trump's New Islamophobia." Toronto Star 14 June 2016: GT8. Print.

David, Cynthia. "Carrots in All the Colours of the Rainbow." Toronto Star 15 July 2009: E1+. Print.

Same article as above but found on the Internet:

David, Cynthia. "Carrots in All the Colours of the Rainbow." TheStar.com. Toronto Star. 15 July 2009. Web. 1 Aug. 2009.

Dressler, Amberly. "The Acrobatics of Mobile Ad Design." Website Magazine Sept. 2013: 20-21. Print.

Note: The following Internet citation is the same article published on the Web by WebsiteMagazine.com posted on August 1, 2013. The print edition of this issue of Website Magazine is dated September 2013.

Dressler, Amberly. "The Acrobatics of Mobile Ad Design." WebsiteMagazine.com 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 16 Aug. 2013.

Engelhart, Katie, and Cathy Gulli. "Fluoride Is One of Our Great Public Health Victories / Fluoride Is Toxic Waste That Does More Harm Than Good." Maclean's 28 Sept. 2009: 42+. Print.

Friedman, Thomas. "Forget General Motors - Our Whole Nation Needs Makeover." Orlando Sentinel  28 Dec. 2008: A19. Print.

Henderson, Peter. "VW Scandal: Automaker Betrayed Our Trust, Say Owners." Epoch Times [Toronto]  24-25 Sept. 2015: A4. Print.

Hillyard, Lindsey. "Teaching Dream Dims as Florida Schools Gasp for Life." Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan 2009: 4A. Print.

Hosenball, Mark, and Evan Thomas. "Hold the Phone." Newsweek 22 May 2006: 22+. Print.

Jacobs, Andrew. "China Cracks Down on Feminist Activists." National Post  [Toronto] 8 Apr. 2015: A8. Print.

Kanter, James, and Andrew Higgins. "Greece Gets Deal, Avoids Eurozone Exit." Toronto Star 14 July 2015: A8. Print.

Kher, Unmesh. "Outsourcing Your Heart." Time Canadian ed. 29 May 2006: 26-29. Print.

King, Ronette. "Foundations Feeling Sting of Nation's Economic Slump: Endowment Values Move with Market." Times-Picayune [New Orleans] 16 Nov. 2008: E1+. Print.

Kujtan, Peter W. "Porphyria: The Vampire Disease." Mississauga News 29-30 Oct. 2005: 23. Print.

The above article online:

Kujtan, Peter W. "Porphyria: The Vampire Disease." A Research Guide for Students. Dr. Kujtan's Medical Matters. 29 Oct. 2005. Web. 11 Aug. 2015.

Marklein, Mary Beth. "FBI: 168 Trafficked Youth Saved." USA Today 24 June 2014: 3A. Print.

Martin, Patrick. "Inaugural Phone Call Creates a Stir in Muslim World." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 22 Jan. 2009: A13. Print.

Mather, Victoria. "In Tiger Country." Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel Fall 2004: 102-111. Print.

Mendleson, Rachel. "Framed by Forensics" Toronto Star 14 June 2015: A6-7. Print.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. "The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins." Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Print.

Pacholik, Barb. "Too Young to be Charged: Why This Boy's Killer Is Free." National Post  [Toronto] 7 Apr. 2015: B1+. Print.

Prestipino, Peter. "Fishing for Leads: More Better Faster." websiteMagazine.com Aug. 2013: 24-29. Print.

Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. "Carmakers' Challenge: Green, Mean Machines." Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Print.

Schofield, Alan, and Jonathaan Leake. "Vaccine Lab Link to Cattle Disease." Australian [Sydney] 6 Aug. 2007: 11. Print.

Soble, Jonathan. "Ban Against Separate Surnames Upheld. " Toronto Star 17 Dec. 2015: A22. Print.
(Law barring married woman from keeping maiden name is fair, Japanese court rules).

Thomas, Bob. "Ricarho Montalban: 1920-2009: Mexican-Born Actor Was Movie, TV Star." Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 2A. Print.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. "Life among the Ruins." Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Print.

Van Pelt, Deani, and Jason Clemens. "Needed: Smart Education Spending." National Post [Toronto] 8 Apr. 2015: FP15. Print.

Waldie, Paul, and Andy Hoffman. "Pizza Pizza Partners Fall Out over Slice of the Pie." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 19 June 2006: B5. Print.

Warne, Kate. "Set Realistic Expectations." Investment Insight. St. Louis, MO: Edward Jones Newsletter, Oct.-Nov. 2007: 1-2. Print.

Warner, Gene. "Finally a Graduate - at 77." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: B1-2. Print.

Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs." American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Print.

or use "et al.":

Wolanski, Eric, et al.  "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs." American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Print.

Woham, Linc.  "Ideal Web Technology." Website Nov. 2011: 24-28. Print.

Zhang, Jane, John M. Killer, and Lauren Etter. "Be Ready for Spilled Milk over Cloning Decision." Globe and Mail  [Toronto] 4 Jan. 2008: A2. Print.

Zhou, Jonathan. "$15 Trillion Plan Would Have US Run on Renewable Energy by 2050." Epoch Times 16-22 July 2015: A7. Print.

The above article online:

Zhou, Jonathan. "$15 Trillion Plan Would Have All of America on Renewable Energy by 2050." 8 July 2015. Epoch Times. Web. 23 July 2015.

13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from SIRS:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite." Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Print.

Example in MLA style:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite." Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Print.

14. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.

2010 Chevy Camaro SS. Video. Advertisement. Inside Line. Edmunds, 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

Air Transat. Advertisement. Toronto Star 18 Apr. 2015: GT1. Print.

Bausch & Lomb. Advertisement. Modern Medicine. Opthalmology Times, 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. Print.

Infiniti. Advertisement. theglobeandmail.com. Globe and Mail [Toronto], 15 July 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

Mona Lisa. Poster. Advertisement. Poster.com. Posters By Mail, 1994-2010. Web. 1 Feb. 2010.

Starbucks. Advertisement. USA Today 24 June 2014: 4A. Print.

TD Canada Trust. Advertisement. Metro   [Toronto], 9 Sept. 2015: 11. Print.

Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. Print.

WhereYouShop.com. Advertisement. Website Nov. 2011: 17. Print.

15. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with no author stated (author unknown):

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. Print.

16. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB: Springbank, 1994. Print.

17. Book, movie or film review:

May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler), Arr. (Arranged).

Alexander, Bryan. "The 2014 Optimus Prime Comes Loaded with Options." Rev. of Transformers: Age of Extinction,
        dir. Michael Bay. USA Today   24 June 2014: 3D. Print.

Bendel, Joe. "A Portrait of the Artist under House Arrest." Rev. of Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case, by Ai Weiwei. Epoch Times  [Toronto] May 22-28, 2014: B1. Print.

Creager, Angela N.H. "Crystallizing a Life in Science." Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Print.

Dillon, Brenda. "Hana's Suitcase." Rev. of Hana's Suitcase, by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking   June 2003: 36. Print.

Foley, Margaret. "Measured Deception." Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover   Nov. 2002: 77. Print.

Groskop, Viv. "Chinese Torture - at Five." Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn Harrison. International Express   6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Print.

Hoffman, Michael J. "Huck's Ironic Circle." Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, 1986, 31-44. Print.

Howell, Peter. "A Coming of Rage Tale." Rev. of Stoker, dir. Park Chan-wook. Toronto Star   1 Mar. 2013: E1+. Print.

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: 629-30. Print.

Neier, Aryeh. "Hero." Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books   13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Print.

Onstad, Katrina. "A Life of Pain and Paint." Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Print.

Pigliucci, Massimo. "Have We Solved Darwin's Dilemma?" Rev. of The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin's Dilemma, by Marc W. Kirschner and John C. Gerhart. American Scientist May-June 2006: 272-274. Print.

Redekop, Magdalene. "The Importance of Being Mennonite." Rev. of  A Complicated Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada   Oct. 2004: 19-20. Print.

Simic, Charles. "The Image Hunter." Rev. of  Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by Diane Waldman. New York Review   24 Oct. 2002: 14+. Print.

18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Audiocassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip

Encarta 2004 Reference Library. Microsoft, 2003. CD-ROM.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. Microsoft, 2003. DVD-ROM.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. "Racism and the Landfill." Chronicle-Herald 7 Mar. 1992: B1. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. CD-ROM.

Links 2003: Championship Courses. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. CD-ROM.

A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. Paramount, 2001. DVD-ROM.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. Montreal: Tele-Direct, 1998. CD-ROM.

19. Computer service - e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. "Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times, late ed. - final ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065 197653951002. Print.

20. Definition from a dictionary:

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.

"Mug." Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. Canadian ed. 1988. Print.

21. Film, Movie:

Short forms may be used, e.g. arr. (arranged by), dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers, performed by), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with the name of that person.

August Rush: An Incredible Journey Moving at the Speed of Sound. Dir. Kristen Sheridan. Prod. Richard Barton Lewis. Perf. Freddie Highmore, Keri Russell, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Terrence Howard, and Robin Williams. Warner, 2007. Film.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Film.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Film.

Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Film.

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Prod. Frank Marshall. Writ. George Lucas. Perf. Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett, Karen Allen, and Shia LaBeouf. Paramount, 2008. Film.

Into the Woods. Screenplay by James Lapine. Dir. Rob Marshall. Perf. Meryl Streep, Emily Blunt, James Corden, Anna Kendrick, Chris Pine, and Johnny Depp. Disney, 2014. Film.

Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Film.

Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. Film.

One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Film.

Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Perf. Kate Winslet and Leonardo DiCaprio. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. Film.

The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Film.

22. Government publication:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated (author unknown): 1) Government. 2) Agency. 3) Title of publication, italicized. 4) Place of publication. 5) Publisher. 6) Date. 7) Medium.

Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000. Print.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington: GPO, 2000. Print.

Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example - for the following record:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Print.

Cite simply as:

Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193. Print.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Chapter 5.5.20 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition.

23. Internet citations or Web citations - citing electronic sources:

Basic components of an Internet citation:

1) Name of author, editor, compiler, translator, director, narrator, performer.  

2) Title of article or Web page title in quotation marks if work is part of larger work, but italicized if work is independent. 

3) Title of  Website, Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, Project, or Work - Italicized if work is independent.

4) Edition or version, e.g. Editorial, late ed., early ed. Also indicate type of material if applicable, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, chart, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, video, etc.

4) Publisher, sponsor or editor of Website or Project. 

5) Date of publication, site creation date, revision date, posting date, last update, or date last modified. 

6) Medium of publication - Web.

7) Date of access, e.g. 3 July 2014, 14 Apr. 2015. (Remember that May, June, July are not abbreviated, all other months are abbreviated when using MLA Style).

Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated (author unknown), leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date at the end of the citation.

Example:

Walid, Tamara, and Jeremy Grant. "Dubai Struggles to Ease Default Fears." Reuters.
        26 Nov. 2009. Yahoo! News. Web. 26 Nov. 2009.

Do not include the complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) UNLESS the cited website is difficult to find and you think the reader may not be able to locate the source without it. If you include the URL, put it in angle brackets and be sure not to divide a domain name made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Do not add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital and lower case letters exactly as they appear.

Example:

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. "IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada." Ottawa: Public Policy, 2004. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <https://www.ppforum.ca/sites/default/files/it_outsourcing.pdf>.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, EBSCO, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter or newspaper with unknown author or no author stated

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, video, etc.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail

h. Internet citation for an online government publication

i. Internet citation for a speech, conference paper, online posting, forum, or letter to the editor

j. Internet citation for a web page from an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site

k. Internet citation for a software download

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor

m. Internet citation for a work translated and/or edited by another

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

2010 Chevy Camaro SS. Video. Advertisement. Inside Line. Edmunds, 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

Bausch & Lomb. Advertisement. Modern Medicine. Opthalmology Times, 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

Infiniti. Advertisement. theglobeandmail.com. Globe and Mail [Toronto], 15 July 2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

Mona Lisa. Poster. Advertisement. Poster.com. Posters By Mail, 1994-2009. Web. 15 July 2009.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, EBSCO, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to Formalize One-Child Policy." Asia Times Online. 24 May 2001. Web. 9 Jan. 2008.

Clifford, Erin. "Review of Neuropsychology." SparkNotes. Web. 3 June 2009.

David, Cynthia. "Carrots in All the Colours of the Rainbow." TheStar.com. Toronto Star. 15 July 2009. Web. 16 July 2009.

Kujtan, Peter W. "A True Guiding Principle of Health (Sugars and Carbohydrates, Avoiding HFCS)." A Research Guide for Students. Dr. Kujtan's Medical Matters. 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.

MacIsaac, Tara. "'Ice Man' on a Mission to Scientifically Prove Power of Mind." 1 Nov. 2014. Epoch Times. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.

Marshall, Leon. "Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest." 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.

Reguly, Eric, and Greg Keenan. "Fiat to Chrysler: Cut Costs or We Walk." Globeandmail.com. Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 15 Apr. 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2009.

Thomason, Larisa. "HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters." Webmaster Tips Newsletter. NetMechanic. Dec. 2003. Web. 30 July 2010.

If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:

Gearan, Anne. "Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected." Washington Post. 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. Web. 2 June 2010.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 2 June 2010 = date of access. If page numbers are provided, indicate page numbers after the publication date, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.

Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. Web. 10 Mar. 2008. If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Web. 3 June 2009.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. "Ho Chi Minh." Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Microsoft. Web. 10 Mar. 2008.

"Ho Chi Minh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. 3 June 2009.

"Royal Shakespeare Company."Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Web. 3 June 2009.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter or newspaper with unknown author or no author stated:

"50 Top Email Solution Providers & Automated Marketing Systems." WebsiteMagazine.com Sept. 2013. Web. 11 Sept. 2013.

"Childcare Industry 'Should Welcome Men'." BBC News Online: Education. 7 June 2003. Web. 3 June 2009.

"Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus." BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003. Web. 3 June 2009.

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. Web. 3 June 2009.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, video, etc.:

Beethoven, Ludwig van. "Moonlight Sonata." 25 Mar. 2006. Video. YouTube. Web. 5 June 2009.

"Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map." Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. Web. 3 June 2009.

Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. Web. 19 May 2007.

Schulz, Charles. "Peanuts Collection - Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock." Cartoon. Art.com. Web. 25 Apr. 2004.

"TOP50 Web Design and Development Resources." Website Magazine. Nov. 2008. Web. 3 June 2009. "Woodhull, Victoria C." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Web. 18 Mar. 2007.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. Message to E. Interior. 11 May 2007. E-mail.

Librarians' Internet Index. "LII New This Week." Message to the author. 4 June 2009. E-mail.

PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." Message to John Smith. 3 June 2009. E-mail.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector. 6 Jan. 1998. Web. 20 July 2007.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights. 29 Jan. 1998. Web. 18 May 2007.

i. Internet citation for a speech, conference paper, online posting, forum, or letter to the editor:

Delphy, Christine. "A War for Afghan Women?" Keynote address. 3-7 July 2002. Townsville International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. Web. 28 July 2007.

Kao, Ivy. "Keep Spreading the Word." Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. Web. 6 Mar. 2006.

Seaside Harry. "My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!" Online posting. 29 Apr. 2007. PriusOnline.com Forum Index - Prius - Technical. Web. 10 Oct. 2007.

j. Internet citation for a web page from an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

"Education & Research Links." English Portal, 2003-2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.

"Gloria Steinem." Power Quotes. Wisdom Quotes by Jone Johnson Lewis, 1995-2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2009.

Grieve, Chris. The Life and Times of Robert Bateman. Heartland Graphics.ca. Web. 25 Nov. 2007.

The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U School of Medicine. Web. 10 Oct. 2005.

O'Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. "John Wilkins." Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. Web. 18 May 2007.

Officer, Lawrence H. "Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty Other Countries, 1913 -1999." Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. Web. 3 June 2009.

Savill, R. Richard. "Jazz Age Biographies." The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000. Web. 3 June 2009.

Sullivan, Danny. "Search Engine Math." 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch. Web. 18 May 2007.

Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. "Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?" Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and Research Institute. Web. 18 May 2007.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.

RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. Web. 12 Oct. 2004.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. Web. 3 June 2009.

m. Internet citation for a work translated and/or edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. Web. 3 June 2009.

Galen. On the Natural Faculties: Book Two. Trans. Arthur John Brock. [Loeb Classical Library, 1916]. Medicina Antiqua, U College London, 2004. Web. 3 June 2009.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister's Office. 31 May 2003. Web. 10 Mar. 2008.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. Web. 10 Oct. 2005.

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 14 Apr. 2015.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 22 June 2014.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:

Wilson-Smith, Anthony. "Hello, He Must Be Going." Editorial. Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Print.

Letter to the Editor:

Davidson, Bruce. "Re-Test All Drivers Every 5 Years." Letter. Re: Don't Target Seniors, Editorial 23 Feb. 2013. Toronto Star 1 Mar. 2013: A18. Print.

Full, Jerome. "Diminishing Palm Coast." Letter. Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 4A. Print.

Lange, Rick. "U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded." Letter. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Print.

Lim, Steven. "It's the Parents Job." Letter. Mississauga News 17 Sept. 2005: 6. Print.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Print.

Patrick, E.A. "Property Investors Created Deficit: Paying for Their Greed." Letter. Orlando Sentinel 28 Dec. 2008: A18. Print.

Schultz, Herb. "Nixing the Niqab." Letter. National Post  [Toronto] 4 Apr. 2015: A15. Print.

Stasiulis, Ray. "Obama Has Already Turned Fear into Hope." Letter. Toronto Star 24 Jan. 2009: AA5. Print.

Reply to a letter to the Editor:

Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. Print.

A letter you received from John Smith:

MS for a manuscript written by hand. TS for a typescript prepared by machine.

Smith, John. Letter to the author. 3 June 2009. MS.

Published letter in a collection:

Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord." Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. Web. 8 Mar. 2015. Print.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with unknown author or no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.

2014 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex Associates, 2014. Print.

Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. Print.

"Dallas TX." Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Print.

28. Musical composition, musical scores:

Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Italicize the title of ballet, music, opera, as well as op. and no., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. When used as descriptions, form, number and key are not italicized. 3) Date composition written (if known). 4) Place of publication. 5) Publisher. 6) Date of publication. 7) Medium.

Note: The word "Nocturne", meaning a gentle piece of classical music, is a Form and not a Title, hence it is not italicized if used as a description in a citation for musical composition. However, in the following two examples, the scores are part of a collection and are treated as works in anthologies.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. "Für Elise." Masterpieces of Piano Music. Ed. Albert E. Wier. New York: Fischer, 1918. 48-52. Print. Scores.

Chopin, Frédéric. "Nocturne, Op. 9, No. 2."  Masterpieces of Piano Music. Ed. Albert E. Wier. New York: Fischer, 1918. 68-69. Print. Scores.

Huff, Mac, arr. Fiddler on the Roof. Winona, MN: Leonard, 1984. Print. Scores.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Print. Scores.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933. Print. Scores.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, italicized. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Medium. 5) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection. 6) City where artwork, museum, gallery, or collection is located.

Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. Sculpture. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Stone. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Limestone statue. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Oil on canvas. Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Fresco. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Stone sculptural relief. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.

Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, italicized. 3) Date artwork created. If date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503. 4) Medium. 5) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house. 6) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 7) Title of book used. 8) Author or editor of book. 9) Place of publication. 10) Publisher. 11) Date of publication. 12) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. 13) Print.

Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones. By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. 232. Print.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. Oil on canvas. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Print.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Print.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Oil on poplar panel . Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Print.

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Sculpture. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Print.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. Red-brick office building. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 408. Print.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Duan Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Print.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne: Könemann, 1998. 118. Print.

Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not italicized or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken.

The Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by C. Wyse. 28 July 2014.

30. Patent:

Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent, italicized. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. 5) Medium.  6) Date of access if info obtained from Internet. 

Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie. German Patent 3943917. July 1996. Web. 5 June 2009.

Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds. US Patent 5078813. 27 Sept. 1988. Print.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. Transportation Vehicles and Methods. US Patent 5971091. 26 Oct. 1999. Web. 5 June 2009.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney's The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. Performance.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 20 Apr. 2002. Performance.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Performance.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. Performance.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Performance.

Shaolin Warriors: The Kung Fu Masters of China. By China Performing Arts Agency Productions. Sony Centre for the Performing Arts, Toronto ON. 23 Nov. 2012. Performance.

The Sound of Music. Music by Richard Rodgers. Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. Dir. Jeremy Sams. Prod. Andrew Lloyd Webber, David Ian, and David Mirvish. Based on book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. Chor. Arlene Phillips. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 5 Sept. 2009. Performance.

32. Radio, television broadcast:

Components: 1) Title of episode or segment (in quotes). 2) Title of program (italicized). 3) Name of network. 4) Call letters and city of local station. 5) Date of broadcast. 6) Medium (radio, television). 6) Additional info.

The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Radio.

Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. Television.

"New Threat from Osama?" By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. Television.

"New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein." By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. Television.

"The Nightmare Drug." By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. Television.

"UFOs: Questions & Controversy." By Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN, Los Angeles. 18 Jan. 2008. Television.

"U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden." AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side. WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. Television.

33. Recording - Music CD, LP (Long Playing record), magnetic tape:

Components: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (italicized). 4) Edition, release, or version. 5) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. 6) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.).

Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. Exclusive Management by The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Zomba, 1999. CD.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, n.d. CD.
or,

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. CD.

Note: "n.d." means "no date" available. [c. 1997] or [ca. 1997] means "circa 1997". (Latin: circa = about, approximately, or around the year 1977).

McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. Prod. Michael McDonald and Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone. Warner Bros., 1985. LP.

Mitchell, Joni. Both Sides Now. Reprise Records, Time Warner. Scarborough, ON: Warner Music Canada, 2000. CD.

Streisand, Barbra. "Memory: The Theme from Andrew Lloyd Weber's Musical <i>Cats</i>." <i>Memories</i>. Don Mills, ON: CBS Records Canada, Columbia, 1981. LP.

ZZ Top Afterburner. Prod. Bill Ham. Songs writ. Billy Gibbons, Dusty Hill, and Frank Beard. Houston, TX: Warner Bros., 1985. LP.

34. Software on floppy disk:

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Vers. 1.0. IBM, 1998. Diskette.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital disc), Videocassette, Filmstrip:

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Audiocassette.

Ginger. Solid Ground. Tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver: Nettwerk, 1994. Audiocassette.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. Warner, 2004. DVD.

Jane Austen's Emma. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Videocassette.

Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. Universal, 2005. DVD.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by Ann Brashares. Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. DVD.

Super Searching the Web. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, 1997. Videocassette.

The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. Warner, 1999. VHS.

36. Unpublished dissertations, theses:

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.

Elmendorf, James. "The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California. BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Print.

Jackson, Marjorie. "The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use." Diss. Columbia U, 1962. Print.

Italicize title if dissertation is published:

Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of Washington, 1985. Print.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002. Print.

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