A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 12. How to Write a Bibliography
or Works Cited Page
Examples in MLA Style 6th Edition

How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page
in MLA Style, 7th Edition
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Links to related pages:

1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)



For documentation in APA style, please see links at APA Style: American Psychological Association, or refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
cover

For a detailed treatment on how to write a bibliography in MLA style with many more examples, please use the official MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition

References to MLA Handbook 6th ed. will soon be updated to 7th ed. on this site.

MLA Handbook 6th edition:
MLA Handbook 6th ed.
See also: MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition by Modern Language Association
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition
by Modern Language Association
The MLA Pocket Handbook: Rules for Format & Documentation by Jill Rossiter
The MLA Pocket Handbook: Rules for Format & Documentation by Jill Rossiter

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.

Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2" (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.

Contents:

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three authors or editors
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors
  5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  6. Book with no author or editor stated. See also Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
  7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)  
14. Advertisement

15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
17. Book, movie or film review
18. CD-ROM, DVD See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip
19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
20. Definition from a dictionary
21. Film, movie
22. Government publication
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
24. Interview
25. Lecture
26. Letter, editorial
27. Map, chart
28. Musical composition
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
30. Patent
31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
32. Radio, Television
33. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
34. Software on floppy disk
35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
36. Unpublished dissertations, theses

1. Book with one author or editor:

Baker, Tim, ed. Golf Tips from the Pros. Cincinnati, OH: David, 2006.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal
        and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.

N.p. = No place of publication indicated.

Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. Spec. illus. ed. New York: Broadway, 2004.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from
        4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
        Hyperion, 2005.

Kunkel, Edward J. Pharaoh's Pump. Warren, OH: Peg's Hobby Print Shop, 1962.

Note: The above citation is for a privately published or self-published book.

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
        Lisse: Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.

---. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

The above two books are by the same author. You need not repeat the author's name. Use three dashes and a period in place of author's name.

Schecter, I.J. Slices: Observations from the Wrong Side of the Fairway. Mississauga, ON:
        Wiley, 2006.

Shakespeare, William. Taming of the Shrew. Ed. John Crowther. New York: Spark, 2004.

---. Taming of the Shrew. Ed. Roma Gill. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1990.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International
        Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey
        of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal
        Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.

Hall, John Whitney, and John Grayson Kirk, eds. History of the World: Earliest Times
        to the Present Day. North Dighton, MA: World, 2005.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can't Be Jammed.
        2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer's Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
        Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
        Square, 1992.

3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special
        Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d'Abadie. The Power of Focus for College
        Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let's Go:
        Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin's, 1998.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815
        9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: 
        A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use "et al." from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning "and others" after the first author or editor named.  

Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
        Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.

or,

Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
        Perigee, 2003.

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures.
        Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian
        Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.

or,

Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.  Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
        2005.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
        Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous:
        A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
        from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.

O'Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
        True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
        Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.

Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by

6. Book with no author or editor stated: (See also Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts)

Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events
        That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.

Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.

The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
        Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita Kimber and Robert Kimber.
        New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed. Stewart Ross.
        Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989.

Although not essential for simple citation purposes, supplementary information may be added to the above citation for clarification:

Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed. Stewart Ross.
        Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989. Trans. of  Les Jours de L'histoire: 14-18
        La Premiere Guerre Mondiale. Paris: Casterman, 1986.

The original text of the above work was written in French by Annie Brown, Lionel Dumarche, Phillipe Glorennec, Jean-Marcel Humbert and Jean-Pierre Verney.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. "Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength." What Is a Man?
        3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
        New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. "Flying Blind." Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
        Comp. and ed. James O'Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly. 
        San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999. 211-22.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:

"Nazi Party." New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.

"Tajikistan." World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

Kibby, Michael W. "Dyslexia." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Midge, T. "Powwows." Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
        11 vols. New York: Marshall, 1997.

11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

"100 Years of Dust and Glory." Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.

"China Goes Soft on the Baby Talk." Harold Sun [Victoria] 6 Aug. 2007: 22.

"Coca-Cola Paid CEO $32 Million U.S. in 2007." Toronto Star 4 Mar. 2008: B2.

"E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.

"I, Barack Hussein Obama, Do Repeatedly Swear ..." Globe and Mail [Toronto]
        22 Jan. 2009: A14.

"Iraq Ratifies Chemical Weapons Ban." Daytona Beach News-Journal
        15 Jan. 2009: 12A.

"McDonald's Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food."
        National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

"Palestinians with Foreign Passports Flee Gaza." Toronto Star 3 Jan. 2009: AA3.

"Pope Names New Bishop for Da Nang, Vietnam." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: A6.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:

Use "+" for pages that are not consecutive. 

Example: When numbering pages, use "70-75" if page numbers are consecutive. Use "A1+" if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.

When using MLA style, note also that there is no period after the month. The period in "Mar." is for the abbreviation of March.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June and July, the months are NOT abbreviated. If the publication date is June 1, 2008, citation will be 1 June 2008.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, "date, month, year" are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only "month, year" are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal may be treated somewhat differently:

Gould, Fred, Krisztian Magori, and Yunxin Huang. "Genetic Strategies for
        Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases." American Scientist 94.3 (2006): 238-246.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
        Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.

The above citation shows: Author's name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).

Cave, Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle." Daily Telegraph [London]
        25 Jan. 2001: 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. "Shaken and Stirred." Atlantic Monthly
        Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq." Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.

Daubs, Katie. "Credit Valley and Trillium Hospitals to Merge." Toronto Star 8 Apr. 2011: GT3.

Friedman, Thomas. "Forget General Motors - Our Whole Nation Needs Makeover." Orlando
        Sentinel 28 Dec. 2008: A19.

Hall, Mimi. "Obama: 'We've Begun the Work of Remaking America.' USA Today 30 Apr. 2009:
        6A.

Hillyard, Lindsey. "Teaching Dream Dims as Florida Schools Gasp for Life." Daytona Beach
         News-Journal 15 Jan 2009: 4A.

Hosenball, Mark, and Evan Thomas. "Hold the Phone." Newsweek 22 May 2006: 22+.

Kher, Unmesh. "Outsourcing Your Heart." Time Canadian ed. 29 May 2006: 26-29.

King, Ronette. "Foundations Feeling Sting of Nation's Economic Slump: Endowment Values
         Move with Market." Times-Picayune [New Orleans] 16 Nov. 2008: E1+.

Martin, Patrick. "Inaugural Phone Call Creates a Stir in Muslim World." Globe and Mail [Toronto]
         22 Jan. 2009: A13.

Mather, Victoria. "In Tiger Country." Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
        Fall 2004: 102-111.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. "The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins."
        Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Mouline, Imad. "Browser Wars Fallout: Will Your Website Survive?" Website Magazine
        Nov. 2008: 38-40.

Petroski, Henry. "Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale." American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
        2003: 18-22.

Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. "Carmakers' Challenge: Green, Mean
        Machines." Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.

Prestipino, Peter. "Click Fraud: Mitigating the Risk." Website May 2007: 20-21.

Schofield, Alan, and Jonathaan Leake. "Vaccine Lab Link to Cattle Disease."
        Australian [Sydney] 6 Aug. 2007: 11.

Steed, Judy. "Drugged-Out Seniors a Prescription for Disaster." Toronto Star
        11 Nov. 2008: A1+.

Thomas, Bob. "Ricarho Montalban: 1920-2009: Mexican-Born Actor Was Movie, TV Star."
        Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 2A.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. "Life among the Ruins." Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.

Waldie, Paul, and Andy Hoffman. "Pizza Pizza Partners Fall Out over Slice of the Pie."
        Globe and Mail [Toronto] 19 June 2006: B5.

Warne, Kate. "Set Realistic Expectations." Investment Insight. St. Louis, MO:
        Edward Jones Newsletter, Oct.-Nov. 2007: 1-2.

Warner, Gene. "Finally a Graduate - at 77." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: B1-2.

Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. "Mud,
        Marine Snow and Coral Reefs." American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

or use "et al.":

Wolanski, Eric, et al.  "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs." American Scientist
        Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

Zhang, Jane, John M. Killer, and Lauren Etter. "Be Ready for Spilled Milk over
        Cloning Decision." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 4 Jan. 2008: A2.

13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from SIRS:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite." 
        Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
        Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.

Example in MLA style:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite."
        Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
        Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.

14. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.

Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.

"Facts about Hand Santizers as Public Concerns over the Swine Flu Increase." Purell,
        Johnson & Johnson. Advertisement. 1 May 2009 <http://www.purell.com/page.jhtml?
        id=/purell/include/news.inc>.  

"Thank You Drosophila melanogaster." Mount Sinai Hospital. Advertisement.
         Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 4 Jan. 2008: A16.

Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.

15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.

16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB:
        Springbank, 1994.

17. Book, movie or film review:

May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).

Creager, Angela N.H. "Crystallizing a Life in Science." Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The
        Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. "Hana's Suitcase." Rev. of Hana's Suitcase, by Karen Levine.
        Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. "Measured Deception." Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The 
        Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
        Discover Nov. 2002: 77.

Groskop, Viv. "Chinese Torture - at Five." Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn
        Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. "Huck's Ironic Circle." Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry
        Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's
        Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
        1986, 31-44.

Howell, Peter. "All Things Come to She Who Waits." Rev. of Avenue Montaigne
        (Orchestra Seats), dir. Danièle Thompson. Toronto Star 20 Apr. 2007: D6.

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
        and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
        629-30.

Neier, Aryeh. "Hero." Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
        Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
        New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.

Onstad, Katrina. "A Life of Pain and Paint." Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National
        Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Pigliucci, Massimo. "Have We Solved Darwin's Dilemma?" Rev. of The Plausibility of Life:
        Resolving Darwin's Dilemma, by Marc W. Kirschner and John C. Gerhart.
        American Scientist May-June 2006: 272-274.

Redekop, Magdalene. "The Importance of Being Mennonite." Rev. of A Complicated
        Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.

Simic, Charles. "The Image Hunter." Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by 
        Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.

18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip

Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. "Racism and the Landfill." Chronicle-Herald
        7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.

A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
        Tele-Direct, 1998.

19. Computer service - e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. "Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times,
        Late Ed. - Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
        197653951002.

20. Definition from a dictionary:

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.

"Mug." Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the
        English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.

21. Film, Movie:

Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with the name of that person.

August Rush: An Incredible Journey Moving at the Speed of Sound. Dir. Kristen Sheridan.
        Prod. Richard Barton Lewis. Perf. Freddie Highmore, Keri Russell, Jonathan Rhys Meyers,
        Terrence Howard, and Robin Williams. Warner, 2007.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
        Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
        Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book
        by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Prod. Frank
        Marshall. Writ. George Lucas. Perf. Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett, Karen Allen, and
        Shia LaBeouf. Paramount, 2008.

Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
        Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.

Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
        Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
        Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.

One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, 
        and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.    

Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Perf. Kate Winslet
        and Leonardo DiCaprio. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams and Adam Schroeder. 
        Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. 

22. Government publication:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.

Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
        Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
        Government Services Canada, 2000.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight -
        Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human
        Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
        GPO, 2000.

Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example - for the following record:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.

Cite simply as:

Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:

a. Internet citation for an advertisement

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter or newspaper with no author stated

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail

h. Internet citation for an online government publication

i. Internet citation for a speech, conference paper, online posting, forum, or letter to the editor

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site

k. Internet citation for a software download

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor

m. Internet citation for a work translated and/or edited by another

Basic components of an Internet citation:

1) Author. 

2) "Title of Article, Web page or site" in quotation marks. 

3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined. 

4) Editor of Project. 

5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 

7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 

9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.

Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual's e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.

Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or "less than" and "greater than" signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.

If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/
        ibm.htm>.

TheraTears. Advertisement. 2006. 27 Nov. 2006 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to Formalize One-Child Policy." Asia Times Online
        24 May 2001. 9 Jan. 2008 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.

Clifford, Erin. "Review of Neuropsychology." SparkNotes. 8 Jan. 2008
        <http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
        Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.

Marshall, Leon. "Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest." 9 Feb. 2001. 
        National Geographic 7 Jan. 2008 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
        2001/02/0209_mandela.html>.

Reguly, Eric, and Greg Keenan. "Fiat to Chrysler: Cut Costs or We Walk." 15 Apr. 2009. 
        Globeandmail.com 15 Apr. 2009 <http://business.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/
        RTGAM.20090414.wrfiat15/BNStory/Business/home>.

Thomason, Larisa. "HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters." Webmaster Tips
        Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 6 Jan. 2008 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
        news/vol6/html_no20.htm>.

If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:

Gearan, Anne. "Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected." Washington Post. 8 May 2002. SIRS.
        Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 28 Feb. 2008 <http://www.sirs.com>.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 28 Feb. 2008 = date of access. If page numbers are provided, indicate page numbers after the publication date, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.

Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
        eLibrary Canada.  Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Mar. 2008.
        <http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/ce/canada>.

Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
        eLibrary Canada. 10 Mar. 2008. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. "Ho Chi Minh." Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Microsoft. 10 Mar. 2008
        <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558397/Ho_Chi_Minh.html>.

"Ho Chi Minh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.

"Royal Shakespeare Company." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
        10 Mar. 2008  <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9377260>.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter or newspaper with no author stated:

"Childcare Industry 'Should Welcome Men'." BBC News Online: Education. 7 June 2003. 
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.

"Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus." BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003. 
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
        Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 10 Mar. 2008
        <http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-4560.00260>.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:

"Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map." Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
        Latimer Clarke. 20 Mar. 2008 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
        political/Afghan_etc.htm>.

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. "Congratulations!" Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
        2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
        display.pd?path=35041&bfrom=1&prodnum=3032062&>.

Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 19 May 2007
        <http://www.journalismjobs.com/lawrence_lee.cfm>.

Schulz, Charles. "Peanuts Collection - Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock." Cartoon. Art.com.
        25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.

"TOP50 Web Design and Development Resources ." Website Magazine. Nov. 2008. 17 Nov. 2008
        <http://www.websitemagazine.com/content/blogs/posts/archive/2008/10/29/top50-web-design-and-development-resources.aspx>.

"Woodhull, Victoria C." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
        Historical Society of Wisconsin. 18 Mar. 2007 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
        hist102/photos/html/1023.html>.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling Nov. 1998.  EBSCOhost Mailer.
        E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2007.

Kenrick, John. "Re: Link to Musicals101.com." E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2007.

"NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005." E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
        LII Team <poster@lii.org>.

PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." E-mail to John Smith.
        10 Mar. 2008.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
         Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
         6 Jan. 1998. 20 July 2007 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
         oagtbs_e.asp>.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights
        29 Jan. 1998. 18 May 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
        charters_of_freedom/bill_of_rights/bill_of_rights.html>.

i. Internet citation for a speech, conference paper, online posting, forum, or letter to the editor:

Delphy, Christine. "A War for Afghan Women?" Keynote address. 3-7 July 2002. Townsville
        International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. 28 July 2007
       <http://www.austdvclearinghouse.unsw.edu.au/Conference%20papers/TIWC/DelphyC.pdf>.

Kao, Ivy. "Keep Spreading the Word." Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
        Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 6 Mar. 2006
       <http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/responses.html?article_id=110003579">.

Seaside Harry. "My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!" Online
        posting. 29 Apr. 2007. PriusOnline.com Forum Index - Prius - Technical.
        10 Oct. 2007 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

"Gloria Steinem." Power Quotes. Wisdom Quotes by Jone Johnson Lewis, 1995-2009.
        14 Nov. 2009 <http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_power.html>.

Grieve, Chris. The Life and Times of Robert Bateman. Heartland Graphics.ca.
        25 Nov. 2007. <http://canadasartists.ca/bateman/>.

The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U 
        School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.

O'Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. "John Wilkins." Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
        Scotland. 18 May 2007 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
        Mathematicians/Wilkins.html>.

Officer, Lawrence H. "Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
        Other Countries, 1913 -1999." Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.

Savill, R. Richard. "Jazz Age Biographies." The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000. 
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.

Sullivan, Danny. "Search Engine Math." 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
        18 May 2007 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.

Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. "Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?"
        Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and 
        Research Institute. 18 May 2007 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
        Page=countries&Area=israel&ID=IA1699>.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.

RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004 
        <http://www.pcworld.com/downloads/file_download.asp?fid=7605>.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
        Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
        1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 18 May 2007 <http://showcase.netins.net/
        web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm>. 

m. Internet citation for a work translated and/or edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed. 
        Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
        10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
        confessions_enchiridion.txt>.

Galen. On the Natural Faculties: Book Two. Trans. Arthur John Brock. [Loeb
        Classical Library, 1916]. Medicina Antiqua, U College London, 2004.
        12 June 2007 <http://www.medicinaantiqua.org.uk/tr_GalNatFac2.html>.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister's Office. 31 May 2003. 10 Mar. 2008
        <http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page3797.asp>.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
        <http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2003/0224/cover/interview.html>.

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 28 June 2010.

Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 15 June 2007.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 28 Feb. 2008.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:

Wilson-Smith, Anthony. "Hello, He Must Be Going." Editorial. Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 4.

Letter to the Editor:

Full, Jerome. "Diminishing Palm Coast." Letter. Daytona Beach News-Journal
        15 Jan. 2009: 4A.

Lange, Rick. "U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded." Letter. Buffalo
        News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.

Keith, Peter G. "Global Warming Requires Global Vision." Letter. National Post [Toronto]
        26 May 2006: A17.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter.
        New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.

Patrick, E.A. "Property Investors Created Deficit: Paying for Their Greed." Letter.
        Orlando Sentinel 28 Dec. 2008: A18.

Stasiulis, Ray. "Obama Has Already Turned Fear into Hope." Letter. Toronto Star
        24 Jan. 2009: AA5.

Reply to a letter to the Editor:

Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.

A letter you received from John Smith:

Smith, John. Letter to the author. 27 Jan. 2009.

Published letter in a collection:

Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord." Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
        Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 8 Mar. 2008
        <http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318.html>.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.

2007 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex Associates, 2007.

Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.

"Dallas TX." Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.

28. Musical composition:

Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined. 3) Form, number and key not underlined.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.

Chopin, Frédéric. Nocturne in E Flat, op. 9, no. 2.

Tchaikovsky, Piotr. Swan Lake.

Click to hear Chopin's Nocturne in E Flat, Opus 9, No. 2, if you wish. Please note the word "Nocturne", meaning a gentle piece of classical music, is a Form and not a Title, hence it is not underlined in the citation.

Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written (if known). 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.

Chopin, Frédéric. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.

Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.

Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, 
        Kleinburg, ON.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse 
        Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, 
        Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.

Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. 

Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones
        By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
        232.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, 
        Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett, 
        et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, 
        Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. 
        Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, 
        Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
        Abbeville, 1979. 31. 

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great
        Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.  New York: 
        Park Lane, 1986. 226.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art.
        By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 
        1991. 408.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek
        Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
        Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque,
       Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne: 
       Könemann, 1998. 118.

Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken.

The Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Lee. 28 July 2005.

30. Patent:

Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. 

Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. "Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope
        in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie." German Patent 3943917. July 1996.

"Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds." US Patent 5078813.
        27 Sept. 1988.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. "Transportation Vehicles and Methods." US Patent 5971091. 
        26 Oct. 1999.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney's Beauty and the Beast. Dir. Lee MacDougall. Music by Alan Menken.  
        Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice. Book by Linda Woolverton.
        Stage West, Mississauga, ON. 12 April 2008.

Disney's The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. 
        Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
        Toronto. 9 June 2002.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
        Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 
        20 Apr. 2002.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James 
        Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
        Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. 
        Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
        Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. 

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
        Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.

32. Radio, television:

Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date.

The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.

Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network.
        WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.

"New Threat from Osama?" By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo.
        13 Nov. 2002.

"New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein." By Martha Graybow. Reuters, 
        New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

"The Nightmare Drug." By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. 
        The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

"UFOs: Questions & Controversy." By Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN, Los Angeles.
        18 Jan. 2008.

"U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden." AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side.
        WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

33. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:

Components:

1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23.

Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by
        The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
        Zomba, 1999.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor 
        Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power 
        Plant Recording Studio, n.d.

or,

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor 
        Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power 
        Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].

Note: "n.d." means "no date" available. [c. 1997] or [ca. 1997] means "circa 1997": Latin = about, approximately, or around the year 1977.

McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
        Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone. Warner Bros.,
        1985.

Mitchell, Joni. Both Sides Now. CD. Reprise Records, Time Warner. 
        Dist. Warner Music Canada, Scarborough, ON, 2000.

ZZ Top Afterburner. LP. Prod. Bill Ham. Songs writ. Billy Gibbons, Dusty Hill, 
        and Frank Beard. Houston, TX: Warner Bros., 1985.

34. Software on floppy disk:

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers. 1.0. 
        IBM, 1998.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip:

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
        tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
   
Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
        Nettwerk, 1994.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel
        by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
        DVD. Warner, 2004.

Jane Austen's Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
        New Video Group, 1996.

Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick.
        Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by
        Ann Brashares. Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
        and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.

Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, 
        1997.

The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
        Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
        Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
        MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.

36. Unpublished dissertations, theses:

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.

Elmendorf, James. "The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California." BA
        thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.

Jackson, Marjorie. "The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use." Diss. Columbia U, 1962.

Underline title if dissertation is published:

Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of
        Washington, 1985.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.

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