Reference Library Sitemap
● Ray Bradbury, 1920-2012 Author of Fahrenheit 451 Biography
● Fahrenheit 451 eText or Online Text, Index & Concordance
● Analysis, Critique, Reviews, and General Resources on Fahrenheit 451
● Study Guides on Fahrenheit 451
● Lesson Plans and Webquests on Fahrenheit 451
● Film, Movie, Video, Audio, Images, Music Sites on Fahrenheit 451
● Special Topics Related to Fahrenheit 451, e.g. Censorship, Book burning
● Miscellaneous Sites on Fahrenheit 451 including Games, Quotations
● Links to other Fahrenheit 451 Web Sites
Note: Some topics may be overlapped.
|Fahrenheit 451 (1966)
|Fahrenheit 451 LitPlan
A Novel Unit Teacher Guide
With Daily Lesson Plans
(LitPlans on CD)
Novel-Ties Study Guide
by Kristi Hiner
by Joel McNeely
& the Seattle
(Listen to samples)
by Ray Bradbury
Steven L. Aggelis, ed.
A Journey to
by Jerry Weist
The Life of
|Fahrenheit 451 (1966)
Starring Oskar Werner
Dir. François Truffaut
Author Ray Bradbury, 91, dies in California by Ann Oldenburg, USA TODAY.
2004 National Medal of Arts - Ray Bradbury - Author, Los Angeles, CA. "The author of The Martian Chronicles and Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury is the greatest living American writer of science fiction."
Fahrenheit 451 Historical Context - The Life and Times of Ray Bradbury. Timeline. Fahrenheit 451: About the Author: Ray Bradbury (1920-2012) - includes an Interview with Ray Bradbury on January 5, 2005 in Los Angeles, by Dana Gioia, Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. From The Big Read, NEA. (Bradbury died June 6, 2012 in California).
Grandfather Time: An Interview with Ray Bradbury by Devin D. O'Leary, Weekly Alibi, 27 September 1999.
Listen to the Ray Bradbury interview with Don Swaim, 1992 (47 min. 31 sec.) and Ray Bradbury interview with Don Swaim, 1993 (33 min. 47 sec.) from Don Swaim's CBS Radio studio in New York. Webcast by Wired for Books in RealAudio, © Ohio University.
Ray Bradbury from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Ray Bradbury Biography from RayBradburyOnline, site created and maintained by a fan of Bradbury's work. American novelist, short-story writer, essayist, playwright, screenwriter, and poet, Ray Bradbury was born in Waukegan, Illinois on August 22, 1920, the third son of Leonard Spaulding Bradbury and Esther Marie Moberg Bradbury. Photos include Bradbury when he was a young boy.
Ray Bradbury: Books Are ... "My books? They're the center of my life! They're the center of my guts! The center of my ganglion! The center of my antennae! The center of being alive!" From Forbes Special Report: Books.
Ray Bradbury is on fire! by James Hibberd. Interview from Salon.com, Aug. 29, 2001. "Author Ray Bradbury, now 81 and recovering from a stroke, has recently become the most sought-after writer in Hollywood."
Ray Bradbury Lesson Plans: Integrate Technology at RayBradbury.com by Trent Lorcher, Edited by SForsyth, Updated on 26 Dec. 2009.
Ray Bradbury Website. Contents include: About Ray Bradbury, Chronology of Books by Ray Bradbury (chronological order/US publications, includes story collections, novels, verse, plays), Articles & Press links, Useful links about Ray Bradbury on the web, Awards won by Ray Bradbury, Personal appearances of Ray Bradbury.
● In His Words: Happy Birthday to Me! By Ray Bradbury: "Last week I turned 82. 82!"
● Marguerite Bradbury, 1922-2003: An appreciation by Sam Weller.
● At Home with Ray with video clips.
● Ray Bradbury Forum. You can also subscribe to the Ray Bradbury Newsletter.
R.I.P. Ray Bradbury, Author of Fahrenheit 451 and The Martian Chronicles. ". . . died this morning (June 6, 2012) in Los Angeles, at the age of 91 . . . confirmation from the family as well as his biographer, Sam Weller.
. . . Danny Karapetian, shared these words with io9 about his grandfather's passing: '. . . His legacy lives on in his monumental body of books, film, television and theater, but more importantly, in the minds and hearts of anyone who read him, because to read him was to know him. He was the biggest kid I know.'"
Sci-fi author Ray Bradbury dies at 91 from CBC News. "Bradbury created a dystopian future in which books were burned in Fahrenheit 451, his best-known novel.
. . . He also wrote the screenplay for the 1956 film version of Moby Dick and created TV scripts for The Twilight Zone.
'What I have always been is a hybrid author,' Bradbury said in 2009. 'I am completely in love with movies, and I am completely in love with theatre, and I am completely in love with libraries.'"
Sci-fi legend Ray Bradbury dead by Alan Duke, CNN. "Bradbury 'died peacefully, last night, in Los Angeles, after a lengthy illness,' the HarperCollins statement said.
'In a career spanning more than seventy years, Ray Bradbury has inspired generations of readers to dream, think, and create,' the statement said. 'A prolific author of hundreds of short stories and close to fifty books, as well as numerous poems, essays, operas, plays, teleplays, and screenplays, Bradbury was one of the most celebrated writers of our time.'
. . . He is survived by his four daughters, Susan Nixon, Ramona Ostergren, Bettina Karapetian, and Alexandra Bradbury, and eight grandchildren. His wife of 57 years, Marguerite, died in 2003."
The future is now: Ray Bradbury's 'Fahrenheit 451' finally an e-book by Hillel Italie, AP National Writer. "The science fiction/fantasy author and longtime enemy of the e-book has finally allowed his dystopian classic "Fahrenheit 451" to be published in digital format. Simon & Schuster released the electronic edition Tuesday (29 Nov. 2011)."
Amazon.com - Editorial Reviews on Fahrenheit 451. "In Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury's classic, frightening vision of the future, firemen don't put out fires--they start them in order to burn books."
Challenging Destiny - Fahrenheit 451. Science Fiction and Fantasy Book Review by James Schellenberg. "Fahrenheit 451 is one of Bradbury's most famous books, and it reads like a fever dream -- intensely cinematic, directed by its own weird dream logic, and full of the quality of images that haunt you for days. ... The book is divided into three sections: 'The Hearth and the Salamander' introduces Montag at home and at work; 'The Sieve and the Sand' finds Montag increasingly disillusioned with his society; and 'Burning Bright' concerns Montag's escape and the eventual end of the society he left behind."
About Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury from CliffsNotes. Introduction, Genre Science Fiction, Historical Influences for Fahrenheit 451.
Essays on Fahrenheit 451. Literary analysis of the novel from EDU Essays.com, a commercial enterprise. Only the first 1,000 characters of the essay is displayed. To download the complete version of any essay, regardless of length or quality, payment is required.
Fahrenheit 451 from The Big Read, National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). Contents: Preface, Introduction, Historical Context, About the Author, Other Works/Adaptations, Discussion Questions, Additional Resources, Teacher's Guide.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury . An Infinity Plus Review by Josh Lacey.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. From Reading Group Guides book review by Judith Handschuh.
Fahrenheit 451: 50th Anniversary Edition - Ray Bradbury. A SF Site Featured Review by Chris Przybyszewski.
Fahrenheit 451: Preface from The Big Read.
The Failure of Fahrenheit 451. Article by Jeremy Smith, Director of Financial Services at the Independent Press Association. Published on 13 October 2003 in Strange Horizons (www.strangehorizons.com), a weekly web-based magazine of and about speculative fiction. "Let's call it Cassandraism, after the daughter of Troy whose prophecies were not believed. ... Fahrenheit 451 has devolved into a near-total fiasco ... Today, no firemen roam the land literally burning books ... but they are merely a dramatization of Bradbury's true fears."
The incendiary prophet by David T. Wright. On Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Wright comments: "In it he managed to predict with frightening accuracy such current social pathologies as the dumbing down of popular entertainment and education, our growing addiction to empty sensory stimulation, the rise of random violence among youth, the increasing anomie and alienation among everyone, the cult of pharmaciæ, the cult of consumerism ... The amazing thing is that he did it more than 40 years ago."
Novels for Classroom Analysis: Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury by Trent Lorcher, Edited by S Forsyth, Updated on 9 August 2010, from BrightHub.com. Fahrenheit 451 Summary, Literary Merit, Fahrenheit 451 Analysis, Student Readability and Appropriateness.
Ray Bradbury and the Real Lesson of Fahrenheit 451 by Doug Mataconis, Outside the Beltway, June 6, 2012. "... Bradbury has decided to make news about the writing of his iconographic work and what he really meant. Fahrenheit 451 is not, he says firmly, a story about government censorship. Nor was it a response to Senator Joseph McCarthy, whose investigations had already instilled fear and stifled the creativity of thousands."
Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 Misinterpreted by Amy E. Boyle Johnston, LA Weekly, 30 May 2007.
Ray Bradbury, RIP: Fahrenheit 451 Is Still Misinterpreted. We, Not Government, Are Enslaving Ourselves by Jill Stewart from LA Weekly, June 6, 2012.
Book-A-Minute - SF/F: Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Ultra-Condensed by Ryan Evans. (SF/F = Science Fiction and Fantasy).
BookRags: Fahrenheit 451 Book Notes. A free, short version of a study guide on Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Brief summaries include: Author Biography / Context of the Work, One-Page Plot Summary, Character Descriptions, Object/Place Descriptions, Quotes, Topic Tracking: Fear, Topic Tracking: Indifference, Chapter Summaries - Part 1: The Hearth and the Salamander, Part 2: The Sieve and the Sand, Part 3: Burning Bright, How to Cite Fahrenheit 451 Book Notes in MLA and APA.
BookRags: Fahrenheit 451 Study Guide. A more detailed study guide containing free EXCERPTS. Contents: Introduction, Overview, Author Biography, About the Author, Plot Summary, Chapter Summaries, Characters, Setting, Social Concerns, Social Sensitivity, Literary Qualities, Thematic Overview, Themes, Style, Historical Context, Critical Overview, Critical Essays, Media Adaptations, Topics for Further Study, Compare & Contrast, What Do I Read Next? Key Questions, Topics for Discussion, Ideas for Reports and Papers, For Further Study, Sources.
CliffsNotes: Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Contents include: ● About the Author: Personal Background ● About the Novel: Brief Synopsis ● Summary and Analysis - Part One - The Hearth and the Salamander ● Summary and Analysis - Part Two - The Sieve and the Sand ● Summary and Analysis - Part Three - Burning Bright ● Character Analysis: Guy Montag, Captain Beatty, Clarisse McClellan, Professor Faber, Mildred Montag, Granger, The Mechanical Hound
Fahrenheit 451 from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Contents include: Plot summary, Characters in Fahrenheit 451, Allusions / references from other works, Ray Bradbury Quotes, References, Printings, Editions of the novel.
Fahrenheit 451 Symbolism. Symbols and Themes in Fahrenheit 451 by Trent Lorcher, Edited by S Forsyth, Updated on 8 December 2010, from BrightHub.com.
GradeSaver: ClassicNote: Fahrenheit 451 Study Guides. Contents include: About Ray Bradbury, About Fahrenheit 451, Character List, Major Themes, Glossary of Terms, Short Summary, Full Summary and Analysis, Summary and Analysis of Parts I, II & III, Related Links, Suggested Essay Questions, Author of ClassicNote and Sources, Test Yourself! Quizzes, Essays, Forum.
Guide to Fahrenheit 451. A comprehensive guide to the novel Fahrenheit 451. Articles include:
● Fahrenheit 451 Questions by Trent Lorcher, Edited by SForsyth, Updated on 16 Jan. 2011.
● Fahrenheit 451 Characters by Trent Lorcher, Edited by SForsyth, Updated on 13 Jan. 2011.
● Fahrenheit 451 Quotes and Analysis by Trent Lorcher, Edited by SForsyth, Updated on 21 Sept. 2009.
JiffyNotes: Fahrenheit 451. Historical Context, Main Characters, Points to Ponder, Did You Know, Plot Summary, Parts 1-3.
NovelGuide: Novel Analysis: Fahrenheit 451. Contents: Novel Summary, Character Profiles, Metaphor Analysis, Theme Analysis, Top Ten Quotes, Biography of Ray Bradbury.
Shmoop.com. Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury: Analysis, summary, chapter-by-chapter, themes, characters, notes, study questions, literature.
SparkNotes: Fahrenheit 451. Contents: Context, Plot Overview, Character List, Analysis of Major Characters, Themes, Motifs & Symbols, ?The Hearth and the Salamander - The hearth, or fireplace, is a traditional symbol of the home, and the salamander is one of the official symbols of the firemen, as well as what they call their fire trucks. Both of these symbols have to do with fire, the dominant image of Montag?s life." The Sieve and the Sand, Burning Bright, Important Quotations Explained, Key Facts, Study Questions & Essay Topics, Quiz, Suggestions for Further Reading.
Fahrenheit 451 - Thug Notes Summary and Analysis. YouTube vide, 5:03 min.
Censorship and Fahrenheit 451. Webquest designed by John Loonam for Tenth Grade, Humanities High School, NY. Contents: Introduction, Task, Process, Evaluation, Conclusion.
Fahrenheit 451 Lesson Plans. Suggested teaching schedule for a 10 class study of Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, Teacher's Guide from The Big Read, National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). See also Fahrenheit 451: Discussion Questions.
Fahrenheit 451 - Mrs. Follis's Teacher Page.
Fahrenheit 451: A Novel by Ray Bradbury. Discussion Questions from Reading Group Guides. Guide by Alice Jones-Miller, editor and writer, Westchester County, NY.
Fahrenheit 451 - Ray Bradbury. Theme: Censorship and the value of literature for Grades 10-11. Discussion of censorship, Interpretation of quotation, Cross-curriculum activities, and Research assignments. Language Arts: Novel Guides from ClassZone.com.
Pillow Academy: Fahrenheit 451. 11th Grade Summer Reading 2008: Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. Content Questions, Discussion Questions. Example: "Discuss why Bradbury chose the medium of science fiction to convey his ideas. What strong social statement is the author making about the future of man in a technical world? What does he feel society and its individuals must do to prevent destruction of the species?"
Ray Bradbury: Lesson plans for Fahrenheit 451 and more from Web English Teacher.
The Teacher's Guide to Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 by Jeanne M McGlinn, from Teaching Books. Guide is designed to provide teachers with resources and activities to introduce themes and activate background knowledge before reading the novel. Contents include: Synopsis of the Novel, About the Author, Before Reading: Anticipation Guide, Before Reading: Background Knowledge, Initial Exploration of Themes, During Reading, After Reading Activities , Reading Other Dystopian Novels , Literature Circle and Young Adult Fiction on Censorship, Additional Resources on Ray Bradbury.
Teaching Fahrenheit 451. Brief description of worksheets with suggested activities for students created by Bernd Wahlbrinck, a teacher of English for over 20 years at a "Gymnasium" in Northrhine-Westfalia, Germany. Worksheets are available online for 40 cents per worksheet with a taster offer of 1 free worksheet of your choice.
Vocabulary Classic Texts: Vocabulary from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury gathered by Jan and Carey Cook for Vocabulary Universityç.
Audio Excerpt of Fahrenheit 451 - Written by Ray Bradbury and read by the author himself, from RayBradbury.com.
A Conversation with Ray Bradbury. YouTube video, 29:02 min.
A Conversation with Ray Bradbury by Lawrence Bridges. YouTube video, 22:19 min.
Day at Night. Ray Bradbury. YouTube video, 29:04 min.
Discussion with Ray Bradbury. YouTube video, 11:28 min.
An Evening with Ray Bradbury 2001. YouTube video, 54:35 min.
Fahrenheit 451 (1966 film) from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Film of a dystopian future, based on the novel by Ray Bradbury. Set in a world where books are banned and critical thought is suppressed; the central character, Guy Montag, is employed as a "fireman", i.e. "book burner". 451 degrees Fahrenheit (about 233°C) is stated as "the temperature at which book-paper catches fire, and burns ...". Film directed by François Truffaut. (Note: A dystopia is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia.)
Fahrenheit 451 (1966 film) from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. "Fahrenheit 451 is a 1966 science fiction drama film directed by François Truffaut and starring Oskar Werner, Julie Christie, and Cyril Cusack. Based on the 1953 novel of the same name by Ray Bradbury, the film is about an oppressive future in which a fireman, whose duty it is to destroy all books, begins to question his task.This was Truffaut's first color film as well as his only English-language film. At the 1966 Venice Film Festival, Fahrenheit 451 was nominated for the Golden Lion."
Fahrenheit 451 (1966) from Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Directed by François Truffaut, Writing credits Ray Bradbury (novel) and Jean-Louis Richard (screenplay). Genre: Sci-Fi / Drama. Plot Outline: In an oppressive future, a fireman whose duty is to destroy all books begins to question his task. Site includes: Cast, Crew, Oskar Werner plays Guy Montag, Julie Christie plays Clarisse/Linda Montag. Reviews, Plot Summary, Comments, Discussion. Goofs for Fahrenheit 451 (1966), Photo gallery for Fahrenheit 451 (1966).
Fahrenheit 451. YouTube video, 4:15 min. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 movie adaptation. Uploaded on Aug 20, 2008 by MisterMaxHeadroom.
Fahrenheit 451- Full audiobook - Ray Bradbury. YouTube video, 5 hr. 28:07 min. Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury and read by the author.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury - Free / Full Audiobook. YouTube video, 4 hrs 39:37 min. A man reading the entirety of Fahrenheit 451.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Part 1, 1 of 2. YouTube video, 1 hr. A woman reading the entirety of Fahrenheit 451 out loud while showing the pages themselves.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Part 2, 2 of 2. YouTube video, 1 hr. 6:04 min. A woman reading the entirety of Fahrenheit 451 out loud while showing the pages themselves.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Part 3. YouTube video, 39:08 min. A woman reading the entirety of Fahrenheit 451 out loud while showing the pages themselves.
Fahrenheit 451: Movie Review (1966) from Query Engine. Genre: SciFi/Fantasy. Running Time: 112 min. MPAA Rating: No Rating. Director: François Truffaut. Writer: Ray Bradbury, Jean-Louis Richard. Cast: Oskar Werner, Julie Christie, Cyril Cusack, Anton Diffring, Jeremy Spenser, Bee Duffell, Alex Scott, Noel Davis. Synopsis: "In the future, an oppressive government maintains control of public opinion by outlawing literature and maintaining a group of enforcers known as firemen to perform the necessary book burnings . . ." Plus links to 30 additional reviews from a variety of sources. View Trailer. 2:13 min.
Fahrenheit 451 (1966) Movie Review from Rotten Tomatoes.
Fahrenheit 451: Topic: Science Fiction. A commercial site for TeachWithMovies.com Learning Guide.
Feeling More Alive: Fahrenheit 451's The Hearth and the Salamander. YouTube video, 4:44 min. John discusses Part 1 of Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, "The Hearth and the Salamander," including discussions of Guy Montag, Clarisse, the complicated relationship between technology and nature, and more.
Book Burning from United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. ""Book burning" refers to the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials. Usually carried out in a public context, the burning of books represents an element of censorship and usually proceeds from a cultural, religious, or political opposition to the materials in question. Book burning has a long and dark history ..."
Book burning from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Contents include: Historical background, Chronology of notable book burning incidents.
The Burning of the Books in Nazi Germany, 1933:The American Response by Guy Stern, from Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center.
Burning still: Fahrenheit 451. More than 50 years after its initial publication, Ray Bradbury's sci-fi fable still resonates.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury: Critical Essays: The Issue of Censorship from CliffsNotes.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury: Critical Essays: Dystopian Fiction and Fahrenheit 451 from CliffsNotes.
Fahrenheit 451 discussion. Why do you think they burn the books?
Harry Potter and the Ministry of Fire by David Serchuk, from Forbes Special Report: Books. "In August 2003, two Michigan pastors, T.D. Turner Sr. and son T.D. Turner Jr., took a stand against sorcery by burning a Harry Potter book outside their Jesus Non-Denominational Church. ... One pastor, Douglas Taylor of the Jesus Party in Lewiston, undeterred, slashed and destroyed 12 Potter books instead. ... Ray Bradbury, however, thinks that Taylor is deluded. The 86-year-old author of the anti-censorship novel Fahrenheit 451 is a passionate advocate of free speech and believes Taylor and his ilk are at best clueless about their actions."
Burning Bright. A general knowledge quiz crafted by Trivia Architect towman931. 10 multiple choice questions with answers and explanatory comments provided, as well as percentage of players who got the correct answers.
The Detailed Fahrenheit 451 Quiz. 25 questions.
Fahrenheit 451 from Game Downloads. Comment from reviewer: "A nice graphical textadventure. Not following the book at all. In the game your mission is to burn all books, but doing so you only want to read them and are not willing to burn them anymore..."
'Fahrenheit 451'. Quiz crafted by Trivia Architect kknesh. 10 multiple choice questions with answers and brief comments provided at the end. Includes percentage of players who got the correct answers. (Note incorrect spelling of "Ecclesiastics" - One must be a member or create a New FunTrivia Account to report errors).
Fahrenheit 451 #2 Challenge Board - Jeopardy Game. Trivia over symbol, character, quote id, and technology from the novel. One or two players. Choice of Flash or HTML version. Must know novel well in order to play this game.
GradeSaver - Fahrenheit 451 Quiz 1. Excellent quiz. 25 multiple choice questions. Provides you with a score. You can review your answers after completion. All correct and incorrect answers are highlighted.
He who destroyes a good Booke, kills reason it selfe. An exhibition of books which have survived Fire, the Sword and the Censors, from University of Kansas Library 1955.
Is a Bible Burned in Fahrenheit 451? Slides from Wiki Answers.com.
Memorable Quotes from Fahrenheit 451 (1966) from Internet Movide Database (IMDb).
The Quotable Bradbury.
Rags to Riches: Part II Fahrenheit 451 Test Review Game . Play this 'Who Wants to Be a Millionaire' inspired game. Your choice of Flash or HTML version. You can play the game multiple times due to a large database of random questions. You have 3 clues/hints or life-lines to help you. Sorry, game over if you make a mistake. You have to start all over again.
Science Fiction Inventions from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. From Technovelgy.com - where science meets fiction?. Read details on inventions: Air-Propelled Train - silent mass transit, Big Flue, Electric-Eyed Snake, Green Bullet - carry your mentor with you, Mechanical Hound - a fireman's best friend, Parlor Wall (TV Parlor) - original big screen TV, Salamander - it was a pleasure to burn, Seashell Radio (Thimble Radios) - original walkman (or ear buds), Spot-Wavex Scrambler - personalized mass media.
Trivia for Fahrenheit 451 (1966) from Internet Movide Database (IMDb).
Fahrenheit 451: The Temperature at Which Book Paper Catches Fire, and Burns. Synopses and Reviews. "Since the late 1940s, Ray Bradbury has been revered for his works of science fiction and fantasy. With more than 4 million copies in print, Fahrenheit 451 - originally published in 1953 - remains his most acclaimed work. Fahrenheit 451 is the temperature at which book paper burns. Fahrenheit 451 is a short novel set in the (perhaps near) future when 'firemen' burn books forbidden by the totalitarian 'brave new world' regime. The hero, according to Mr. Bradbury, is 'a book burner who suddenly discovers that books are flesh and blood ideas and cry out silently when put to the torch.'"