A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 7. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style 6th ed.

Translate this page to another language of your choice:


To translate a block of text or web page, click Bing Translate or Google Translate


Wall Street Executive Library Feature Site - This is not an ad but a link to a world of wonderful resources.
Business Toolkit
Reference Library
  Sitemap
     
Google
globe    
by freefind
     

Useful Links

Links to related pages:

1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)



For a detailed treatment on Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation, please see Chapter 6.5 in:

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition


For a detailed treatment on Endnotes and Footnotes, please see Appendix B.1 in:

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 6th Edition

Information relating to MLA style as presented here has been simplified and adapted from this authoritative publication from the Modern Language Association of America.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

This Chapter deals only with simple and common examples on how to write Footnote and Endnote citations. To view examples, see Chapter 8. First Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style as well as Footnotes - Sample Page and Endnotes - Sample Page.

Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.

The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

In the unlikely event that you are using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e.g., "The Information Superhighway is giving way to a Commercial Superhighway."1 If you are using a word processor, you can access the superscript function. To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs.

When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made.

NOTE: Only one sentence is used in a Footnote or Endnote citation, i.e., only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnote or Endnote citation. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentences, hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e.g., a period after the author statement, a period after the title statement, and a period after the publication statement (publication/publisher/publication date).

First Footnote or Endnote example:

     2 G. Wayne Miller, King of Hearts: The True Story

of the Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery

(New York: Times, 2000) 245.

Bibliography example:

Miller, G. Wayne. King of Hearts: The True Story of the

     Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery. New York:

     Times, 2000.

Use of ibid. and op. cit.:

Gibaldi (313) does NOT recommend the use of these old-fashioned abbreviations: ibid. (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") and op. cit. (from the Latin opere citato meaning "in the work cited.")

For Footnote or Endnote citations, if you should see the term ibid. being used, it just means that the citation is for the second mention of the same work with no intervening entries, i.e. exactly the same work cited as the one immediately above:

     2 G. Wayne Miller, King of Hearts: The True Story

of the Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery

(New York: Times, 2000) 108.
     3 Ibid.

Or, if the identical work is cited, but with different page numbers:

     3 Ibid. 12-15.

More commonly, author and page number or numbers are now used instead of ibid., e.g.:

     4 Miller 12-15.

For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op. cit. was used, now only the author and page number or numbers are used:

     5 Miller 198.

Use of Superscript:

[Tab] or indent Footnote and Endnote entries 5 spaces from the left margin. Leave one space between the superscript number and the entry. Do not indent second and subsequent lines. Double-space between entries. Number Footnotes and Endnotes consecutively using a superscript, e.g., 7.

For Endnotes, you must use the same superscript number (as in your text) at the beginning of each Endnote in your Endnotes list. Start your list of Endnotes on a new page at the end of your essay. Remember to put the Endnotes page before the Bibliography, or Works Cited, or References page.

Examples of first Footnotes or Endnotes, subsequent Footnotes or Endnotes, and listings on Works Cited or References page:

Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts:

Example in text:

An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.8

Example of Footnote citation, long form:

     8 Matthew 12:1-8.

Example of Footnote citation, short form:

     8 Mt 12:1-8.

Click here to see abbreviations of Books of the Bible

List under Works Cited:

The New Jerusalem Bible: Reader's Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

Example in text:

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "Because of its common origin

the human race forms a unity, for 'from one ancestor [God] made all nations

to inhabit the whole earth.'"9

Example of a first Footnote or Endnote citation for the above quote from Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 1, Paragraph 6I, Reference #360, Page 103, would be:

     9 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday, 1994) 360.

Subsequent citation of this same quote:

     10 Catechism 360.

Citation of a different quote from the same book:

     11 Catechism 1499.

List under Works Cited:

Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

Examples of Footnote or Endnote citations for other sacred texts:

     12 Pius XII, encyclical, Summi Pontificatus 3.
     13 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.

Do not confuse Footnote and Endnote citations with explanatory Notes that some authors refer to as "Endnotes." This type of "Endnotes" or "Notes" are not the same as bibliographical Footnote, Endnote or Parenthetical citations but are used to add comments, explanations, or additional information relating to specific passages in the text.

HOME     VIRTUAL LIBRARY     PREVIOUS     NEXT