A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 8. First Footnotes and Endnotes -
Examples in MLA Style

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1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)


For an excellent source on writing footnotes and endnotes using MLA style, please go to the official:

MLA Handbook
for Writers of Research Papers
7th Edition

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition

or MLA Handbook, 6th ed.:

MLA Handbook 6th ed.

Information relating to MLA style as presented here has been based mainly on this authoritative publication from the Modern Language Association of America.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York, MLA, 2003.

Note: Detailed Footnotes and Endnotes are needed only for sources cited for the first time. When citing the same work more than once, it is no longer fashionable to use ibid. or op. cit.; the current trend is to use the short title or the author's last name instead. Indent the first line of a Footnote or Endnote entry.  Second and subsequent lines are not indented. Double space between lines. Treat each entry as one statement or sentence. Put a period at the end of each entry. For further details and more samples, see How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes, Footnotes - Sample Page, and Endnotes - Sample Page.

Contents:

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three or more authors or editors
  4. Book with no author or editor stated
  5. Book that has been translated
  6. Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors
  7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated
  8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author
  9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated
10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors
11. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated
12. Book, movie, film, product, or software review
13. Government document
14. Interview
15. Film or video recording
16. Audio recording
17. Televisioin or radio
18. Computer software or CD-ROM
19. Internet
20. Reference to Shakespeare
21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
22. Citations for a single work throughout essay
23. Sources used more than once - See also Use of ibid and op. cit.

1. Book with one author or editor:

1 Brian Mulroney, Memoirs: 1939-1993 (Toronto: McClelland, 2007) 26.

1 Jerry White, ed. Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 7-8.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

2 Alex Goldfarb and Marina Litvinenko, Death of a Dissident: The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the RGB (New York: Free Press, 2007) 125.

2 Andrew Cohen and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random, 1998) 391.

3. Book with three or more authors or editors:

3 Jack Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1998) 68.

3 Mans O. Larsson, et al., eds. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. Martin's, 1998) 96-98.

4. Book with no author or editor stated:

4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed. (Toronto: Charlton, 1989) 39.

4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step, (Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001) 235.

5. Book that has been translated:

5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, trans. M. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam, 1993) 95.

6. Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors:

6 Carmen DaSilva, "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning," Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed. Jerry White (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 57-71.

6 Maryann G. Valiulis, "Power, Gender and Identity in the Irish Free State," Irish Women's Voices Past and Present, ed. Joan Hoff and Moureen Coulter (Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1995) 118.

7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated:

7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues, 1997 ed.

8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author:

8 Lawrence A. Presley, "DNA Fingerprinting," World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 ed.

9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated:

Click here to see Abbreviations of Months of the Year

9 "25 Cars Stolen from Police Force," Times [London] 25 Jan. 2008: 29.

9 "Lighting Up the World: A Canadian's Obsession Has Helped Thousands," Maclean's 4 Nov. 2002: 42-43.

9 "Man Who Shot Cat Must Work with Animals," Buffalo News 13 Jan. 2007: A8.

9 "Thirsty Russians Face Doubled Vodka Price," Toronto Star 2 Jan. 2010: W1+.

10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors:

10 Bob Koslow, "More Owners Losing Homes: Foreclosures Jump 82 Percent in Dec.," Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 1A+.

10 Charles Bremner, Adam Sage, and Marie Tourres, "The 'Lowly, Fragile' Employee Behind World's Biggest Scam," Times [London] 25 Jan. 2008: 2.

10 Graeme Samuel, "Bank Robbers Queue Online," Harold Sun [Victoria] 6 Aug. 2007: 28.

10 Haya El Nasser, "Life on the Great Plains Is Anything But Plain, Simple," USA Today 13 Aug. 2007: A1+.

10 Jil McIntosh, "Eyes Are the Best Safety Tool a Driver Has," Toronto Star 9 Apr. 2011: W12.

10 Kate Moran, "Housing Bust Hits North Shore: Overbuilding, Credit Crisis Are Blamed," Times-Picayune [New Orleans] 16 Nov. 2008: E1-2.

10 Michael Crabb, "National Ballet of Canada Takes Manhattan," Toronto Star 7 Sept. 2014: E5.

10 Paul Waldie, Tara Perkins, and Wendy Stueck, "Fuel Costs Predicted to Soar Past $1.30 in Months," Globe and Mail [Toronto] 4 Jan. 2008: A1+.

10 Peter Prestipino and Mike Phillips, "The ABC's of SEO," Website May 2007: 26+.

10 Rachel Sa, "Bllame Cookie Monster," Sunday Sun [Toronto] 2 Dec. 2007: C7.

10 Robin E. Bell, "The Unquiet Ice," Scientific American Feb. 2008: 60-67.

11. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated:

11 2001 Chevy Tracker: Chevy Trucks (General Motors of Canada, 2000).

11 Fosamax (Kirkland, PQ: Merck Frosst Canada, 2007).

12. Book, movie, film, product or software review:

12 Henry Gordon, rev. of China! The Grand Tour, CD-ROM, Hopkins Technology, We Compute Feb. 1998: 15.

12 Katrina Onstad, "Not Too Naughty, Not Too Nice," rev. of The Santa Clause 2, dir. Michael Lembeck, National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM5.

13. Government document:

13 Canada, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan (Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000) 12-13.

13 United States, National Council on Disability, Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures (Washington: GPO, 2000) 6.

14. Interview:

14 Hellmut Longin, Personal interview, 28 July 2014.

15. Film or video recording:

15 The Pacifier, dir. Adam Shankman, perf. Vin Diesel, DVD, Disney, 2005.

15 A Simple wish, dir. Michael Ritchie, writ. Jeff Rothberg, perf. Martin Short and Mara Wilson, VHS, Universal, 1997.

16. Audio recording:

16 Ginger, Solid Ground, Nettwerk, Vancouver, 1994.

17. Television or radio:

17 Larry King Live Autism Story, CNN, 27 Feb. 2008.

17 Abbey Lincoln Sings Her Career, WBGO, Newark, NJ, 4 Mar. 2002.

18. Computer software or CD-ROM:

18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix, 1995.

18 Norton AntiVirus, CD-ROM, Symantec, 2006.

18 QuickTax: Standard Tax Year 2007, CD-ROM, Intuit Canada, 2008.

19. Internet:

Note: First date = Web page creation or modification date. Second date = the date you accessed the Web page. If the Web page does not have a modification or creation date, leave it out, but always indicate your access date just before the URL.

19 Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs, "Aboriginal Peoples Survey: From APS I to APS II." Facts from Stats, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Issue No. 15, Mar. 2000, 15 Dec. 2004 <http://www.inac.gc.ca/nr/nwltr/sts/2000-03_e.html>.

19 Christine Delphy, "A War for Afghan Women," keynote address, 3-7 July 2002, Townsville International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia, 28 July 2006 <http://www.austdvclearinghouse.unsw.edu.au/ Conference%20papers/TIWC/DelphyC.pdf>.

19 James Henretta, et al., "Richard Allen and African-American Identity," America's History, Spring 1997, 18 June 2008 <http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/ spring97/allen.html>.

19 "Edsitement," 1 Jan. 2009 <http://edsitement.neh.gov>.

19 Abdullah al-Shiri, "Danish Cartoon Prompts Protest," Sunday Herald 29 Jan. 2006, 12 Feb. 2006 <http://ww1.sundayherald.com/53793>.

20. Reference to Shakespeare:

(Shakespeare's plays are cited with Roman capitals for the Act, small Roman numerals for the Scene, and Arabic numerals for the Lines).

20 Hamlet IV, i, 15-18.

In-text Footnotes or Endnotes may be added in an essay for a single Shakespearean play:

20 Lear sums up his whole tragedy when he says, "I am a man more sinned against than sinning." (III, ii, 57).

21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts:

See also: How to Cite the Bible from Henry Buhl Library.

Click here to see Abbreviations of Books of the Bible

Example in text:

An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.1

Example of Footnote citation, long form:

1 Matthew 12:1-8.

Example of Footnote citation, short form:

1 Mt 12:1-8.

List under Works Cited:

The New Jerusalem Bible: Reader's Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

Example in text:

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for 'from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth.'" 2

Example of first Footnote or Endnote citation of the above quote taken from Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 1, Paragraph 6I, Reference Number: 360, Page 103, would be:

2 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday, 1994) 360.

Subsequent citation of the same quote:

3 Catechism, 360.

Citation of a different quote from the same book:

4 Catechism, 1499.

List under Works Cited:

Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

Examples of other Footnote or Endnote citations of sacred texts:

5 Pius XII, encyclical, Summi Pontificatus 3.

6 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.

22. Citations for a single work throughout essay:

If the entire essay is about one book, e.g. Carrie only and there are no other sources used, a Footnote or Endnote is needed only for the first quotation as follows:

Stephen King, Carrie (New York: New American, 1974) 40. All subsequent quotations are from this edition.

After this, it is only necessary to supply the page number of the text:

Sheriff Otis Doyle testified that Miss Snell told him that "Carrie did it. Carrie did it." (198)

23. Sources used more than once:

For a more detailed treatment of this topic, see How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes: Use of ibid. and op. cit..

1. If a source was footnoted earlier, you can use a shortened Footnote or Endnote providing only the author's surname and the reference page number:

1 King 197.

2. When two or more books by the same author are used as reference material, or there are sources by two or more authors with the same last name, include the short title or an abbreviated form of the title:

2 King, Fire-Starter 279.

2 King, It 13.

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