A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Sample Footnotes in MLA Style

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1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
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22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)


If you choose to indent your paragraphs as recommended in the MLA Handbook, 6th ed. (132), begin a new paragraph by typing the first word 1/2" (1.25 cm or 5 spaces) from the left margin. The entire essay is typed double-spaced, except for Footnote citations at the foot of the page. Title of essay centered, 1” (2.5 cm) margin on all four sides, page number at upper right hand corner 1/2" (1.25 cm) down from the top.

If your instructor prefers that paragraphs not be indented, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs. More empty space is created for the instructor to write comments when paragraphs are not indented.

Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space.

The Footnote citations must be added at the foot or bottom of the SAME page where you have cited the sources. All first Footnote references must be cited in full. Subsequent references of the same work may be shortened to include only the author's last name and page number. If the source cited has no author stated, use whatever minimal information is needed to identify the same work previously cited, e.g. short title and page number. Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. and op. cit. were used but they are no longer preferred.

It is recommended that you use Endnotes in place of Footnotes. This will eliminate the need to allow sufficient space to accommodate all the required Footnote entries at the bottom of the same page where your citations occur. If your instructor has no preference, use the much simpler Parenthetical Documentation in place of Footnotes or Endnotes.

For details on how to handle Footnotes that continue onto the next page, please see pages 269-270 in:

MLA Handbook 6th ed.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.Note: A new edition of MLA Handbook is now available:

MLA Handbook
for Writers of Research Papers
7th Edition

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition

Begin your Footnote citations four lines (quadruple space) below your text. Follow the spacing as shown in the example below, e.g. indent the first line 1/2" (1.25 cm), and add a space after the superscripted number. Do not indent second and subsequent lines of Footnotes. Single-space Footnotes within each citation as there is not much room at the bottom of the page. Double-space entries between citations, and be sure to list them in the same consecutive order as cited in the text of the essay.


Jones 1

Tracy Jones

Mr. K. Smith

ENG-4GN-01

26 May 2016

The Many Facets of Taboo

        The World Book Encyclopedia defines Taboo as "an action, object, person, or place forbidden by law or culture."1

        An encyclopedia of the occult points out that taboo is found among many other cultures including the ancient Egyptians, Jews and others.2

       Mary Douglas has analyzed the many facets and interpretations of taboos across various cultures. She points out that the word "taboo" originates from the Polynesian languages meaning a religious restriction.3She finds that "taboos flow from social boundaries and support the social structure."4

           Robert Deliège points out that as early as 1777, Captain James Cook reported that some chiefs in Tonga were taboo and were not allowed to behave like common people, and that the first European observers were not quite sure whether "taboo" meant "sacred" or "defiled."5

        In traditional British East Africa, between the time of puberty and marriage, a young Akamba girl must maintain an avoidance relationship with her own father.6

        Looking at taboo in a modern society, Marvin Harris gives an interesting example of the application of cultural materialism to the Hindu taboo against eating beef.7

 

 

 

         5  Robert Deliège, "Untouchability - Taboos - Bibliography,"?Science Encyclopedia, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://science.jrank.org/pages/8139/Untouchability-Taboos.html>.

         6 Sigmund Freud, Totem and Taboo (New York: Random, 1918) 17.

         7 Marvin Harris, "The Cultural Ecology of India’s Sacred Cattle," Current Anthropology 1992, 7:51-66, qtd. in Stacy McGrath, "Ecological Anthropology," Anthropological Theories: A Guide Prepared by Students for Students 19 Oct. 2001, U. of Alabama, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/Murphy/ecologic.htm>.


If your instructor considers your Footnote citations to be adequate documentation, you may not be required to complete a Works Cited, References or Bibliography page. Otherwise, a separate page must be added at the end of your paper entitled: Works Cited, References, or Bibliography to include all of the above Footnote citations. See sample below.


Works Cited

Deliège, Robert. "Untouchability - Taboos - Bibliography." Science Encyclopedia, 2012, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://science.jrank.org/pages/8139/Untouchability-Taboos.html>.

Douglas, Mary. "Taboo." Man, Myth & Magic. Ed. Richard Cavendish. New ed. 21 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1994. 2546-2549. Print.

Dundes, Alan. "Taboo." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. New York: Random, 1918. Print.

McGrath, Stacy. "Ecological Anthropology." Anthropological Theories: A Guide Prepared by Students for Students. 19 Oct. 2001. U. of Alabama. Web. 26 May 2012

          <http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/Murphy/ecologic.htm>.

"Taboo." Occultopedia: Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences and Knowledge. Site created and designed by Marcus V. Gay. Web. 26 May 2012 <http://www.occultopedia.com/t/

          taboo.htm>.

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