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● Biomes and Ecozones - General Resources
● Alpine or Mountain Biomes
● Aquatic, Tidal, Estuarine (Estuary), Marine, Ocean, or Water Biomes
● Chaparral Biomes
● Desert Biomes
● Ecozones of Canada, Ecoregions of the United States
● Grassland or Savanna Biomes
● Natural Regions of Canada
● Temperate, Boreal, Coniferous, Deciduous Forest, Taiga, or Woodland Biomes
● Tropical Rainforest Biomes
● Tundra Biomes
What Is a Biome?
Sneed B. Collard III
James M. Needham
Biomes and Ecosystems
by Barbara J. Davis
Biome from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. "Biomes are climatically and geographically defined areas of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems."
Biome Basics: A Lesson Plan for Grades 9-12 Science by B. Carl Rush, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Education.
Biomes. A biome is a large, distinctive complex of plant communities created and maintained by climate. How many biomes are there? Descriptions of 8 biomes: tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, scrub forest (called chaparral in California), grassland, desert, tropical rain forest, temperate rain forest.
Biomes by S. Sydenham and R. Thomas, kidcyber.com.au. 7 generally accepted biomes are:
1. water (freshwater or ocean)
2. rainforest (tropical or temperate)
5. taiga (coniferous forests)
6. deciduous forests
Biomes: Crossword Puzzle by Frank A. Longo, edited by Will Shortz, from New York Times Learning Network. Crosswords: Biomes Solution - Answer Grid.
Biomes. Lots of color photographs of Terrestrial Biomes, Un-Biome: Polar / Alpine, Tundra, Boreal Forest (Taiga), Temperate Forest, Grasslands (Steppes), Woodland (Chaparral), Desert, Tropical Deciduous Forest and Savannah, Tropical Rain Forest, and Temperate Rain Forest.
Biomes. Web pages developed by some 70 Grade 9 students at Thurston High School in Springfield, Oregon. Each page deals with one biome under these categories: Animals, Plants, Climate, and Health Issues.
Biomes: Fast Facts. from KidsKonnect.com.
Biomes - Habitats from EnchantedLearning.com. Site provides information on: Arctic Biome, Desert Biome, Chaparral or Scrub Taiga = Coniferous Forests, Grassland, Tropical Rainforest, Pond, Ocean, Antarctic, Tundra, Cave, City, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Savanna, Prairie, Freshwater, Marsh, Swamp, Intertidal Zone, and Coral Reef. You can also print out a monthly Biomes Calendar.
Biomes of the World from TeachersFirst.com. An on-line research project for middle school or advanced upper elementary students. Categories include: Coniferous Forest, Deciduous Forest, Rainforest, Fresh Water, Tundra, Ocean, Savannah, and Desert.
Biomes of the World from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). Click on Rainforest, Tundra, Taiga, Desert, Temperate, or Grasslands to see details of each Biome. See also Freshwater Ecosystems (Rivers & Streams, Ponds & Lakes, Wetlands), and Marine Ecosystems (Shorelines, Temperate Oceans, Tropical Oceans).
Canadian Atlas Online: Ecozones. Canada contains 15 terrestrial and 5 maritime ecozones, arranged here as follows: Arctic and Taiga, Pacific and Western Mountains, Central Plains, Boreal Shield, Mixedwood Plains, and Atlantic. Site is not very user-friendly for younger students.
Canada's Ecozones. Canadian Biodiversity Website from Redpath Museum, McGill University. Ecozones: 1. Arctic Cordillera, 2. Northern Arctic, 3. Southern Arctic, 4. Taiga Plains, 5. Taiga Shield, 6. Boreal Shield, 7. Atlantic Maritime, 8. Mixedwood Plains, 9. Boreal Plains, 10. Prairies, 11. Taiga Cordillera, 12. Boreal Cordillera, 13. Pacific Maritime, 14. Montane Cordillera, 15. Hudson Plains, 16. Arctic Basin (Marine), 17. Pacific (Marine), 18. Atlantic (Marine), 19. Northwest Atlantic (Marine), 20. Arctic Archipelago (Marine). Physical Conditions in Canada: Precipitation, Temperature, The Arctic Circle, Geology and geography.
Communities and Biomes: Word Search and Crossword Puzzle, include answers.
Earth Floor. Site includes information on commonly found Biomes: Arctic Tundra Biome, Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest Biome, Desert Biome, Tropical Rainforest Biome, Tropical Savannah Biome, and Taiga Biome. A map shows the locations of these biomes in different colors.
Major Biomes Map from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Global Soil Regions Map.
Mission: Biomes from Earth Observatory, NASA. Biomes covered: Coniferous Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grassland, Rainforest, Shrubland, Tundra.
Ecosystem Management. Parks Canada Environmental Conservation Programs. Within national parks, efforts are directed at maintaining ecosystems in as natural a state as possible. Menu: Ecological Integrity, Ecosystem Monitoring, Ecosystem Fragmentation, Ecosystem Restoration, Ecosystem Protection, and Ecosystem-Based Management. See also National Parks of Canada.
Air - The Ecosystem from Environment Canada: Soil and Water, Vegetation, Wildlife.
● What Is Biodiversity?
● Canadian Biodiversity Strategy
● Importance of Nature
● Climate Change: Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations, Climate Change Science and Research.
Ecological Framework of Canada: Ecozone and Ecoregion Descriptions.
Ecosystems / Biomes from Geography World. Numerous links to related sites.
Environmental Biology - Ecosystems from Marietta College, Marietta, OH. Overview, Roles of Organisms, Energy Flow Through Ecosystems, Food Chains and Webs, Human vs. Natural Food Chains.
Habitats / Biomes from abcteach.com. Classroom activities on Coral Reef, Pond, Desert, Rain Forest, Grassland, Tundra / Arctic, Kelp Forest, Wetland, Ocean.
Canada's Ecozones from Canadian Biodiversity.mcgill.ca, funded by Museums Assistance Program of Heritage Canada, Web Design and Artwork by Torsten Bernhardt. Physical Conditions in Canada: Precipitation, Temperature, Arctic Circle, Geology and geography. The 15 Canadian Ecozones. Canada has fifteen terrestrial and five aquatic ecozones. Each ecozone below includes: Location, Climate, Geology and geography, Flora and fauna, Humans, and Images:
● Arctic Cordillera
● Nothern Arctic
● Southern Arctic
● Taiga Plains
● Taiga Shield
● Boreal Shield
● Atlantic Maritime
● Mixedwood Plains
● Boeal Plains
● Taiga Cordillera
● Boeal Cordillera
● Pacific Maritime
● Montane Codillera
● Hudson Plains
● Arctic Basin Maine
● Pacific Marine
● Atlantic Maine
● Northwest Atlantic Marine
● Arctic Archipelago Marine
Life in Chesapeake Bay from National Earth Science Teachers Association. Chesapeake Bay and its watershed support more than 3,600 species of plants, fish and animals. 2,700 species of plants.
Listening to Nature: A Sound Walk Across California. From collection of Library of Natural Sounds at Oakland Museum of California. Sounds are organized to represent differing natural communities encountered as one goes inland from the coast, towards and over the Sierra Nevada to the Great Basin. Listen to sounds of Marbled Godwit, Elephant Seal, Western Gull, California Sea Lion, Steller's Jay, Hermit Thrush, Spotted Owl, Northern Pygmy-Owl, Varied Thrush, Great Horned Owl, Pacific Treefrog, Bewick's Wren, Field Cricket, Lazuli Bunting, Red-Winged Blackbird, American Coot, Snow Goose, Tundra Swan, Western Meadowlark, Red-Tailed Hawk, Tree Cricket, Acorn Woodpecker, Red-Breasted Nuthatch, Red-Breasted Sapsucker, Black-Headed Grosbeak, Coyote, Sage Grouse, House Finch, Gambel's Quail, Cactus Wren, Red-Spotted Toad, and Black-Throated Sparrow.
Montreal Biodome from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also Biodome de Montreal from Trip Advisor: the educational and entertaining Biodome consists of four different ecological habitats - rain forest, polar, marine and forest - where visitors can see the plants and animals native to each ecosystem. The polar penguins and puffins and the tropical monkeys and parrots will enthrall children and adults alike.
Montreal Biodome. Replicas of four ecosystems found in the Americas:
● The Tropical Forest - a replica of the South American rainforest.
● The Laurentian Forest - a replica of the North American wilderness.
● The Saint Lawrence Marine Eco-system - an estuary habitat modeled on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
● A polar area divided into Arctic and Antarctic.
Natural Resources Conservation Service from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Topics: Technical Resources, Land Use, Soils, Water, Air, Plants & Animals, Energy, Climate Change, People, Conservation Client Gateway.
Nature and Wildlife Habitat from Environment Canada. Contents: Habitat Conservation, Entire Network of Protected Areas, National Wildlife Areas, Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, Important Areas for Birds in Nunavut, Wetlands of Ontario.
Planet Earth from Kidcyber.au. Includes Biomes.
The Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Contents: Mount Everest, The Great Barrier Reef, The Grand Canyon, Victoria Falls, The Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Paricutin Volcano, and The Northern Lights.
The Sierra Club: 21 Ways to Save the Wild Planet by Tracy Baxter, Sep. 1995. (Article may no longer be available). Missing links - large protected areas are needed for effective ecosystem preservation - includes information on progress in protecting North American ecosystems - Saving the Wild Planet. Tailored to the particular needs of each ecosystem, 21 regional plans aim to restore the ecological health of the planet through concrete local action. View details on each of the following Ecoregions:
North American Prairie
See also: 5 Easy Ways to Help Save the Planet Earth (with Pictures) from Wikihow.
Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada. The 15 Canadian Terrestrial Ecozones are: Taiga Cordillera, Boreal Cordillera, Pacific Maritime, Montane Cordillera, Boreal Plains, Taiga Plains, Prairie, Taiga Shield, Boreal Shield, Hudson Plains, Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime, Southern Arctic, Northern Arctic, and Arctic Cordillera.
Why Birds Matter from Bird Studies Canada - an organization that conserves wild birds through sound science.
Wildlife Pictures from Africa. Selection of wildlife pictures was taken in Botswana (Tuli Block and Chobe National Park), South Africa (Kruger National Park and the game reserves of KwaZulu-Natal), and Zambia's Lower Zambezi National Park. Include photos of Elephant, Lion, Giraffe, Zebras, Antelope, Buffalo, Baboon, Monkey, Hyena, Rhino, Bird, Leopard, Hippo, Cheetah, Mongoose, Warthog, Baby Animals.
Wolves Changed an Entire Ecosystem. Video from Flixxy.com, 4:33 min. "When wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park after being absent nearly 70 years, something astounding happened."
World Biomes from BluePlanetBiomes.org.
World Biomes.com. Covers 5 of the major world biomes: Aquatic, Desert, Forest, Grasslands, and Tundra. Site gives a definition of a biome, provides a Map of World Biomes, and a very informative FAQ section with answers to 20 Frequently Asked Questions.
The World's Biomes. Biomes are defined as "the world's major communities, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment" (Campbell 1996). It is important to preserve all types of biomes as each houses many unique forms of life. From University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Alpine Biome from Marietta College, Marietta, OH. ". . . the global mountain ranges that are parts of the alpine biome include the Rockies, Sierra, and Cascade mountains in North America, the Andes in South America, the Himalayas in Asia, the Alps and Pyrenees in Europe, and the Rift Mountains of Africa." Site includes numerous photos.
Alpine Links take you to other Websites about Alpine Biomes.
The Bear - Film by Jean-Jacques Annaud. A cougar chases a young bear for food. An exciting video, 3:55 min.
Bears and Cougars from B.C. Parks.
Mountain Biome. Mountains cover about 20% of the Earth's surface and are found on all continents and in all oceans.
Mountain Biomes. Diagram showing a mountain biome with vegetation and animals similar to global biomes but over much smaller areas.
Savoring the Wildlife on Grandfather Mountain. Grandfather Mountain, in the Blue Ridge Mountains, a part of the Appalachians, rises 5,946 feet above sea level. The elevation allows the mountain to boast of 16 distinct ecological communities. There are 7 environmental habitats featuring cougars, white-tailed deer, black bears and river otters.
The Amazing Mountains and Lakes by Gheorghe Zamfir, the Lonely Sheperd.
Aquatic Biomes. There are two types of aquatic biomes: marine regions and freshwater regions. Site includes Aquatic Biome Images.
Aquatic Wildlife. Photographs of Fish, Crabs, Mudskippers, and Star Fish.
The Canadian Heritage Rivers System. Find rivers by province or territory, by name of river, or click on the river's name on the map for more information.
Coast Biome by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. The coast is where the land meets the sea. This highly variable region begins where salt spray reaches and affects land-based plant communities and extends seaward through the surf zone as far as wave action still disturbs the sea bottom, usually to depths of about 200 ft. Indeed, the coast environment has the greatest diversity of habitats and microhabitats on Earth.
Coral Reef Life: Sharks & Rays presented by Sea and Sky.
Discover the Seashore. A Fascinating Place, The Intertidal: A Land between the Tides, An Incredible Wealth of Life, Find the Seashore Habitats, Investigate the Species of the Rocky Shore, Species of the Sandy Beach, and Species of the Sand Dunes, and more.
Estuaries: Habitat for Wildlife. Where are Canada's estuaries? Why do plants flourish in estuaries? The estuarine food web, Plants in estuaries, Animals in estuaries. Includes map, drawings, illustrations and photos. See also Species at Risk in Canada and Extent of Canada's Wetlands.
Exploring Estuaries from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Estuaries are places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. A wide variety of birds, fish, and other wildlife make estuaries their home.
The Freshwater Biome. Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration, usually less than 1%. Different types of freshwater regions: Ponds and lakes, Streams and rivers, Wetlands. Water is the common link among the major types of biomes and it makes up the largest part of the biosphere, covering nearly 75% of the Earth's surface. From University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Freshwater Biome includes inland bodies of water called ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers and streams.
The Fresh Water Biome from University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP). Ponds and lakes, Streams and rivers, Wetlands.
Fresh Water from TeachersFirst.com. Interesting information about fresh water, e.g. "The place where fresh and salt-water meet are called estuaries" plus links to Web resources related to water biomes, e.g. Amazon River, Shorelines, Water: From Sky to Sea, Colorado River Report, Half Barrel Pond, All Along a River, Living Lakes, Freshwater Ecosystem, Life in a Pond, etc.
Freshwater Biome. The freshwater biome includes inland bodies of water called ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers and streams.
Freshwater Ecosystems from Missouri Botanical Garden (BMGnet): Rivers and Streams, Ponds and Lakes, Wetlands.
Great Barrier Reef - stretches along the east coast of Queensland in Australia, is the world's largest coral reef. Over 2000 km (1250 miles) long, but is not a single reef at all. It is made up of over 2900 individual reefs very close to each other. Excellent photos.
Gulf of Maine: A Sea Beside a Sea. U.S. states and Canadian provinces that border the Gulf of Maine include Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Site also covers: Estuary: Where River Meets the Sea, Tidepool: Window into the Sea, and Beach: Ocean Battle Zone.
The Marine Biome. Marine regions cover about 3/4 of the Earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries. Marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. From University of California Museum of Paleontology.
The Marine Biome from University of California Museum of Paleontology. Oceans, Coral reefs, Estuaries.
Marine Ecosystems from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet): Shorelines, Temperate Oceans, Tropical Oceans.
Marine Mammals: Dolphins from Humane Society of the United States. Harbor Porpoises, Manatees, Otters, Polar Bears, Sea Lions, Seals, and Whales.
Marine Protected Areas. About one in four species of sharks, rays and skates are now threatened with extinction, due primarily to overfishing ... Climate change is another serious threat to ocean health, as marine ecosystems continue to deteriorate due to ocean warming and acidification.
● Canada's National Marine Protected Areas. Click a circle on the map to explore the marine areas that are protected by Parks Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Marine Protected Areas from National Geographic. Ocean Stories, Ocean Life, Protecting the Ocean, Underwater Exploration, Photos, Pristine Seas.
● Marine Protected Areas by David Suzuki. "By their simplest definition, marine protected areas are areas of ocean that are free from destructive forms of resource exploitation."
● What are marine protected areas (MPAs)? Definition of MPA: A marine protected area (MPA) is essentially a space in the ocean where human activities are more strictly regulated than the surrounding waters ... These places are given special protections for natural or historic marine resources by local, state, territorial, native, regional, or national authorities.
Ocean Biome. The ocean, the largest biome on Earth, covers more than 75% of the world's surface.
The Ocean Biome from Windows to the Universe. The ocean holds the largest of Earth's biomes. It covers 70% of the planet's surface. Life in the ocean is diverse.
"Ocean Planet" Marine Life Facts from Smithsonian Institute. See also Threatened Habitats and Rece ntly Revealed: Unknown animals, like nothing ever seen, startle scientists.
Oiled Wildlife Care Network Frequently Asked Questions. Effects of Oil on Wildlife: What are the primary effects of oil on birds? What are the primary effects of oil on marine mammals? Can the ingestion of oil by wildlife be toxic? and other Q&A's.
Ponds and Lakes from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). All about ponds and lakes, Pond succession, Oxbow lakes, Five largest lakes, The Great Lakes, Algae, Ponds and lakes animals.
Rivers and Streams from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). What is a watershed? Watershed scientific concepts, How a stream becomes a river, When rivers run into the ocean, River zones, River creatures. Learn about additional freshwater animals, including insects, in the Aquatic Critters Slide Show.
Shorelines from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). Sandy shores, Barrier islands, Rocky shores, Tide pools, Estuaries, Salt marshes, Mud flats, Mangrove forests, Tides, Waves, Currents, Shorelines animals.
Temperate Oceans from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). Zonation, Light zones, Data, Forests, Patterns, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, How the ocean refreshes itself, Food from the sea, Dolphin safe tuna, Ocean animals.
Tropical Oceans from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). More about coral reefs, Where are coral reefs? Threats to coral reefs, Coral reefs in Belize, Tropical oceans animals.
Tsunami. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Tsunami Website. "A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor, landslides, or volcanic activity." Contents: Tsunami Basics, Big Picture, Warning, Preparedness, Hazard Assessment, Education, Animations.
Tsunami Definition. Megatsunami from Wikipedia.
U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Includes photographs: Beluga, Bottlenose Dolphins, Common Dolphins, Dall's Porpoise, Killer Whales, Pinnipeds, California Sea Lions, Seals, and more.
Water Biome: Fresh water from kidcyber.com.au. About three quarters of the earth's surface is covered with water. The water biome is divided into fresh water (water with little or no salt in it, in ponds, rivers, streams) and marine, or salt water (ocean).The animals and plants of the freshwater biome are different in each country.
Wetlands from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet). What are fresh water wetlands? Importance of wetlands, Wetlands in danger! Crooked tree, Corkscrew swamp, Wetland animals.
Chaparral Biome from BluePlanetBiomes.org. "Chaparral is characterized as being very hot and dry." Plants, Animals, Climate, Mediterranean, Chaparral, California Chaparral, Fynbos.
Coniferous Forest from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
Hard Chaparral, Soft Chaparral and Common Chaparral Plants from Biological Sciences, Santa Barbara City College (SBCC).
Listening to Nature: A Sound Walk Across California. From collection of Library of Natural Sounds at Oakland Museum of California. Sounds are organized to represent differing natural communities encountered as one goes inland from the coast, towards and over the Sierra Nevada to the Great Basin. Listen to sounds of House Finch, Gambel's Quail, Cactus Wren, Red-Spotted Toad, Black-Throated Sparrow, Coyote, Acorn Woodpecker, and others.
Scrubland from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description. "Shrublands include regions such as chaparral, woodland and savanna. Shrublands are the areas that are located in west coastal regions between 30° and 40° North and South latitude."
Desert from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
Desert from Missouri Botanical Garden. What is a desert? Types of deserts? Where are deserts located? Deserts of the world, Desert plants, Desert animals.
Desert Biome. Deserts are areas that have experienced extreme droughts leaving large bodies of sand and rock. They occupy about 20% of the Earth's surface and can be found on all continents.
The Desert Biome. Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm per year. From University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Desert Biome from kidcyber.com.au. A desert is a dry area where less than 50 cm of rain falls each year. About one fifth of the Earth's surface is desert. Deserts can be hot or cold.
The Desert Biome from University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP). Hot and dry desert, Semiarid desert, Coastal desert, Cold desert.
Desert Biomes from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert.
Desert Biomes. Information on Arid, and Semi-Arid Desert, as well as Coastal and Cold Deserts. Includes Map of World Biomes, and Images of Desert Biomes.
The Desert Biome. Deserts have a varied species of animals that have adapted to the harsh climate of the desert. Topics covered: Climate, Animals, Plants, and Health Issues.
Desertscrub by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. Desert areas are rarely devoid of life. Instead, they abound with wonderfully adapted plants and animals that have evolved various mechanisms for tolerating or avoiding the extremes of aridity and temperature that might be encountered in their environment ... Arid climates are those which average less than 10 inches of precipitation a year. Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the annual water budget. Furthermore, rainfall is highly localized and relatively unpredictable in terms of when it will occur ... Annual variation in total precipitation may also be great. Temperatures are also variable. They may exceed 100° F on summer afternoons, but dip by 20-30 degrees or more at night. Winters are cool to cold: hot deserts" rarely experience frost; "cold deserts" may have prolonged periods of below freezing temperatures and snowfall.
Desert USA. Desert Animals & Wildlife. Desert Animal Survival. Desert Plants & Wildflowers. Desert Environment & Geology: Rocks, Gems & Minerals. People & Cultures of the Southwest.
Drought from the Canadian Encyclopedia. "Drought is the condition of critically low water supply caused by persistently below-normal precipitation . . . Drought can also temporarily disturb the ecological regime, creating conditions favourable to the spread of certain INSECT PESTS and plant and ANIMAL DISEASES." Contents include: Types of Droughts, Meteorological Drought, Agricultural Drought, Hydrological Drought, Socio-Economic Drought, Weather and Drought, Canadian Droughts, Future Droughts.
● What Are the Effects of Drought? By Larry West, About.com Guide. Drought May Lead to Hunger, Disease, Even War.
● Consequences of Drought from Wikipedia.
The Sahara Desert - Morocco, West Africa. Photos by Dan Heller. "...the area used to be lush with green forests and lakes. But, a massive climate change ... caused the whole place to dry up. Wind and erosion turned the petrified land into sand."
● Photos of the Sahara - Desert images by Richard Pelisson, SaharaMet. 9,100,000 km
● 27 Spectacular Pictures of the Sahara Desert by Stephanie Kay-Kok.
● The Sahara Desert: In Photos - Never Ending Footsteps by Lauren, 26 Aug 2012.
● Tuareg life in the Sahara desert - in pictures from The Guardian. A new exhibition at the Royal Geographic Society sheds light on the nomadic culture of Mali and Niger as they fight to preserve their way of life.
Description of the Ecoregions of the United States compiled by Robert G. Bailey, from U.S. Forest Service.
Ecoregions of United States, from U.S. Forest Service.
● Ecosystem Domains.
● Ecosystem Divisions.
● Ecosystem Provinces.
Ecozones. Ecozone. Ecosystem. Ecosphere. What's the difference between all these "ecowords"?
Ecozones. Brief descriptions of each ecozone from Canadian Wildlife Federation: Wild About Gardening, includes color map. Taiga Cordillera, Boreal Shield, Boreal Cordillera, Hudson Plain, Pacific Maritime, Mixed Wood Plain, Montane Cordillera, Atlantic Maritime, Boreal Plain, Southern Arctic, Taiga Plain, Northern Arctic, Prairie, Arctic Cordillera, and Taiga Shield.
EcoZones, EcoRegions, and EcoDistricts. Canada is grouped according to broad ecological similarities into 15 EcoZones. The EcoZone framework is divided into a total of 194 EcoRegions (217 polygons). EcoRegions are further subdivided into EcoDistricts known also as Land Resource Areas. Each EcoDistrict is characterized by homogeneous biophysical and climatic conditions.
Grassland from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
The Grassland Biome. Characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. There are two main divisions of grasslands: tropical grasslands, called savannas, and temperate grasslands.
Grassland Biome. In North America, grasslands are also called plains or prairies. In Asia, they are called steppes. In South America, grasslands are called pampas, llanos, or cerrados. In Africa, grasslands are called savannahs or velds. In Australia, they are called rangelands.
The Grassland Biome from University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP). Tropical grasslands or savannas, Temperate grasslands.
Grassland Biomes are unaltered areas of land where grass is the dominant plant life. Includes: Map of World Biomes, Images of Grassland Biomes, short description of categories: praries, steppe, and savanna.
Grasslands Biome from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Climate, Steppes of Eurasia, North American Prairie, The Pampas.
Grasslands Biome from kidcyber.com.au. Grasslands are found on every continent except Antarctica. About one quarter of the Earth's land is in the grasslands biome. Grasslands have different names in different countries, such as pampas (South America), prairies (North America), savannahs (Africa), or steppes (Asia).
Grasslands Region: Alberta, Canada. Grasslands comprise 14% of the Province of Alberta. Includes photo of Grasslands and links to other Grassland Webpages.
Savanna Biomes from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Australian Tropical Savanna, African Savanna. "A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. Not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests. Savannas are also known as tropical grasslands."
Tropical Savannas by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. Tropical savannas or grasslands are associated with the tropical wet and dry climate type ... savannas develop in regions where the climax community should be some form of seasonal forest or woodland ... The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains which became Hispanicized after the Spanish Conquest. ... Savannas are characterized by a continuous cover of perennial grasses, often 3 to 6 feet tall at maturity.
Weather and Climate Patterns in Canada's Prairie Grasslands by Sean M. McGinn, University of Alberta.
National Parks of Canada. List of National Parks of Canada by Alphabetical Order. List of National Parks of Canada by Province/Territory.
Boreal Forest Region: Alberta, Canada. The Boreal Forest Region comprises 48% of the Province of Alberta. Includes a Boreal Forest photo from Northern Alberta, plus links to other Boreal Forest Webpages, such as Taiga: The Canadian Boreal Forest, Vanishing Old-Growth Forests, Ontario Forestry, and others.
Boreal Forest Succession: An Alaskan Case Study from iwebquest.com. What happens to a forest after it has been wiped out?
Boreal Forest (Taiga) by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. The boreal forest or taiga exists as a nearly continuous belt of coniferous trees across North America and Eurasia ... Taiga is the Russian name for this forest which covers so much of that country ... The taiga corresponds with regions of subarctic and cold continental climate. Long, severe winters (up to six months with mean temperatures below freezing) and short summers (50 to 100 frost-free days) are characteristic.
Boreal Forest (Taiga) represents the largest terrestial biome. Seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers, and long, cold, dry winters. The length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days.
The Common Conifers of Southeast Alaska. Forest Facts. The temperate rain forest of the panhandle of Alaska is widely known for its lush vegetation. See also Plants, Animals, Fish and Birds of the Tongass National Forest in Alaska.
Coniferous Forest from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
The Coniferous Forest Biome from University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP). Three major types of forests, classed according to latitude: Tropical forest, Temperate forest, and Boreal forests (taiga).
Deciduous Forest from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Northeast Asian Deciduous Forest.
Deciduous Forest from TeachersFirst.com. Deciduous forests consist of trees that do not bear cones. Description of a deciduous forest plus links to Web resources on deciduous forest.
Discover Rainforests. Rainforest in Canada! Where? The Rainforest Recipe, What Does It Look Like? Rainforests around the World, It's in the Leaves, Discover Rainforests Habitats, and more.
Forest Biome. Forests can be divided into five main categories: coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed leaved forest, Mediterranean forest, and tropical rainforests.
Forest Biomes. Information on Boreal, or Taiga biomes, and Temperate Deciduous Forest. Includes Images of Forest Biomes.
Taiga from Missouri Botanical Garden (MBGnet).
Taiga Animal Printouts. Description of a taiga biome plus information and pictures about mammals, birds, and insects found in cold taiga biomes: Ant, Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Wolf, Badger, Bald Eagle, Beaver, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Canada Goose, Caribou, Dall Sheep, Deer, Earthworm, Ermine, Fox, Gray Wolf, Great Horned Owl, Husky, Lemming, Lynx, Malamute, Moose, Musk Ox, Muskrat, Red-Tailed Hawk, Reindeer, Scorpion, Short-Tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Squirrel, Weasel, White-Tailed Deer, Wolf, Wolverine, and Woodland Caribou.
Taiga Biome from kidcyber.com.au. Taiga, also called boreal forests, is the largest land biome.These forests are found in a broad belt across Europe, Asia and North America : about two thirds are in Siberia, and the rest are in Scandinavia, Alaska and Canada. In this biome, summers are short and mild and the winters are long, cold and dry.
Taiga Biomes from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Siberian Taiga.
The Taiga or Boreal Forest Biome from Marietta College, Marietta, OH. "Climate in the taiga is cold, with average annual temperatures from about +5° to -5° C." The Forests of Europe.
Temperate coniferous forest from Wikipedia.
Temperate Coniferous Forest Ecoregions from World Wildlife Fund (WWF). "Temperate evergreen forests are found predominantly in areas with warm summers and cool winters, and vary enormously in their kinds of plant life . . .
Temperate rain forests only occur in 7 regions around the world - the Pacific Northwest, the Validivian forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, the Northeastern Atlantic (small, isolated pockets in Ireland, Scotland, and Iceland), southwestern Japan, and those of the eastern Black Sea)."
Temperate Deciduous Forest from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
Temperate Deciduous Forests Biome from kidcyber.com.au. 'Deciduous' means to shed - deciduous trees shed their leaves once a year . . . Deciduous forests are found in the eastern part of the USA and large areas of Europe. There are four seasons in this biome, with warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters.
Temperate Forest. Geographic Distribution of the Forests: The caducifolio forest - (in the Northern hemisphere, the caducifolio forest is located around the 50' of North latitude), The coniferous forest - (extends between the limit of the tundra and the 50' of N latitude, in Europe, Asia and North America).
Temperate Forests. What is a Temperate Forest like? Where are they located? What colors are certain leaves in the fall? Autumn Leaf Scrapbook, Forest Animals, and Temperate Links.
Temperate Forest: The Forest Biome occurs in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and central Europe. Well-defined seasons with a distinct winter characterize this forest biome.
Temperate rain forest from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Temperate Rain Forests from U.S. National Park Service. Ocean-Born Forests, Recipe for Olympic National Park's Temperate Rain Forest, Where to See Temperate Rain Forests, Common Trees, Shrubs.
Amazon's Rescue Reversed. Article by Tom Phillips in Rio de Janeiro, The Guardian. Space imaging gives the lie to Brazil's recent 'great achievement' of halting rainforest destruction.
The Disappearing Rainforests. Rainforest Facts from rain-tree.com. "Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's land surface; now they cover a mere 6% ... One and one-half acres of rainforest are lost every second with tragic consequences for both developing and industrial countries."
Exploring the Tropics. Contents include: Are All Tropical Forests, Rain Forests? Tropical Rain Forest Layers, Effects of Elevation on Climate and Vegetation, Plant Adaptations to the Tropical Rain Forest, Plant and Animal Interactions, Biological Diversity, Economic and Interesting Plants of the Tropics, People of the Tropical Rain Forest, Causes of Destruction, What You Can Do, and Learn More about Tropical Rain Forests.
How Rainforests Work - Video (1:59 min.) from Howstuffworks. How Rainforests Work from How Stuff Works. What is a Rainforest? The Forest for the Trees, All Creatures, Great and Small, and Deforestation.
Importance of the Tropical Rainforest Canopy by Steve Nix, Forestry.About.com. "Rain forests are 'cradles of diversity'. They spawn and support 50 percent of all living organisms on Earth even though they cover less than 5% of Earth's surface."
Protect the World's Forests from Rainforest Action Network (RAN). Energy. "Climate Change is the single biggest environmental threat facing our planet. Our dependence on fossil fuels for energy pollutes the atmosphere with greenhouse gases, leading to significant impacts on the planet’s ecosystems, including forests, and to extreme weather events, both of which hit the world’s poorest hardest."
Rain Forest from abcteach.com. Information and classroom activities on rainforests, including Plant Life in the Rain Forest, Color photos of birds native to the rain forest.
Rainforest from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
Rain Forest: Incubators of Life from National Geographic. "The rain forest is nearly self-watering. Plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called transpiration. In the tropics, each canopy tree can release about 200 gallons (760 liters) of water each year ... Plants in the rain forest grow very close together and contend with the constant threat of insect predators. They have adapted by making chemicals that researchers have found useful as medicines ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that 70 percent of the anti-cancer plants identified so far are rain forest plants."
Rainforest from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rainforest. Two types of Rainforests: Temperate and Tropical. Where are Rainforests located? What are Rainforests like? Exploring the Tropical Rainforest. Tropical Plants. Tropical Animals. Rainforest Links.
Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia.
Tropical, or Rainforest. The rainforest is the most ecologically rich of the world's biomes. Rainforests are generally found at the equatorial level of the planet. Daylight in the rainforest lasts for 12 hours. There is no winter.
Tropical Rainforest by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. The tropical rainforest is earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth ... Sunlight is a major limiting factor ... Mean monthly temperatures are above 64 ° F; precipitation is often in excess of 100 inches a year.
Tropical Forest: The Forest Biome occurs near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 ° N and 23.5 ° S. One of the major characteristics of tropical forests is their distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present - rainy and dry.
Tropical Rainforest Biomes from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Southeast Asian Rainforests. "The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly."
Tropical rainforest from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Tropical Rainforests and Temperate Rainforests from kidcyber.com.au. There are two kinds of rainforest: the tropical and the temperate. Both kinds are endangered. Tropical rainforests are millions of years old, and temperate rainforests are about 10,000 years old.
Tropical Rainforests from TeachersFirst.com. "Tropical rainforests are located along the equator." Description of a tropical rainforest plus links to Web resources on tropical rainforests.
The World's Remaining Great Forests by Jessica Aldred, guardian.co.uk. Interactive article: "The Planet's Vital Ecosystems" contains 2 pages.
The Amazing Animals of the Tundra. A Hotlist of Animals on the Alaskan Tundra: Bald Eagle, Beaver, Black Bear, Caribou, Dall Sheep, Red Fox, Golden Eagle, Grizzly Bear, Ground Squirrel, Lemming, Loon, Lynx, Moose, Mosquito, Pika, Porcupine, Ptarmigan, Wolf. Include Latin name, photo, and online resources for each animal or insect.
The Amazing Plants of the Tundra. A Hotlist of Plants on the Alaskan Tundra.
Antarctica. Richard Sidey Expedition Photography. Vimeo video, 6:43 min.
Archaeology in Arctic North America. Topics covered: The Arctic Environment - characteristics, Doing fieldwork in the Arctic, Archaeological Sequence of the Arctic, Recent research in southern Baffin Island, and more.
The Arctic - Index of all the Arctic pages, by J. Giannetta, Saskatchewan.
● Introduction: The Land, Plants, The Polar Seas, Weather, Wildlife, Living in Northern Communities, Resources: What the Arctic Has.
● INUKSUIT, and aurora borealis.
● Arctic Wildlife Animals of the Arctic, Animals Living on Land, Arctic Birds, Arctic Sea Mammals.
● Arctic Plant Life.
● Canada's Northern Communities. People of the Arctic.
Arctic Animals. Each printout includes labels for body parts, brief description of the animal where relevant, e.g. fur, skin, anatomy, diet, classification, etc. Arctic Animals covered: Alaskan Malamute, Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Tern, Arctic Wolf, Beluga Whale, Dall Sheep, Ermine, Greenland Shark, Harp Seal, Killer Whale (Orca), Lemming, Moose, Musk Ox, Narwhal, Northern Fur Seal, Polar Bear, Puffin, Reindeer, Short-tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Walrus, Wolverine, Woodland Caribou, and Zooplankton.
Arctic Animals and Lands - Land Mammals from Inns North. More than 750,000 caribou live in Nunavut ... The most important land mammal to the Inuit is the caribou. The meat of the caribou provides daily sustenance and its fur provides clothing ... There are also foxes, weasels, lemmings and hares in the Arctic.
Arctic Animals and Lands for the Curious. Brief info from Inns North Hotels.
● Land Mammals.
● Flora - Plants in the Arctic.
● Land, Water & Ice.
Arctic Circle, Maps of the Arctic Area, Arctic Links, Arctic Animals, The Arctic - America's Arctic - Western Arctic.
Arctic Circle: Natural Resources. Articles about the Arctic for the more advanced students. Titles include: Conserving the Caribou, The 'Lost' Reindeer of Arctic Alaska, The Nuuk Declaration - September 16, 1993, with links to CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora & Fauna) a Working Group of the AEPS (Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy).
Arctic - Life in the Deep Freeze. Video clips from One Human Planet, BBC.co.uk.
● Human Planet, Arctic: Life in the Deep Freeze from BBC.
● The Artic: Life in the Deep Freeze. YouTube video, 7:50 min. Published on Mar 26, 2012 by StBedetheVenerable.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Aims to conserve wildlife and wilderness in northeast Alaska for present and future generations. Wildlife & Habitat in the Arctic. Arctic Refuge is home to some of the most diverse and spectacular wildlife in the arctic. The Refuge's rich pageant of wildlife includes 42 fish species, 37 land mammals, eight marine mammals, and more than 200 migratory and resident bird species. Mammals: Gray Wolf, Polar Bears, Brown Bears, Moose, Caribou, Muskoxen, Dall Sheep. Birds: Tundra Swans, Snow Geese, Peregrine Falcons, Bluethroats, Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Fish: Arctic Grayling, Dolly Varden, Arctic Cisco.
Arctic Studies Center - Arctic Wildlife Portfolio. The Arctic Studies Center is part of the Department of Anthropology, in the National Museum of Natural History, a section of the Smithsonian Institution.
● Birds - Albatross, Bald Eagle, Peregrine Falcon, Ptarmigan, Puffin, Snowy Owl.
● Mammals - Arctic Fox, Caribou & Reindeer, Lemming, Musk Ox.
● Sea Mammals - Beluga Whale, Orca, Polar Bear, Sea Otter, Seal, Walrus.
● Arctic Wildlife Glossary.
Arctic Theme Page. A rich resource of data, graphics,
forecasts, and other information about the Arctic from research institutions around the world. Includes:
● Gallery of Arctic Images
● Education: Alaska Ecosystems, Polar Ecosystems
● Arctic Animals
● Arctic Change
● Essays include What is the impact of the Ecosystem on fishery resources in the Bering Sea? by Patricia A. Livingston and Thomas K. Wilderbuer.
● Site sponsored by U.S. Arctic Research Office of the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).
Arctic Wildlife - Birds, Mammals, and Sea Mammals from Arctic Studies Center, a U.S. government program, established in 1988.
Arctic Wildlife Refuge. See photos and information on: Polar Bear, Musk Ox, Caribou, Spectacled Eider, and Arctic Wolf.
Canada's Arctic - Canada's Polar Life. Canada's Polar Environments: Inland Waters, Land, Marine Waters, Sky (Optical Phenomenon), Climate, Maps, Canada's Polar Environments - Images: Ground Images, Satellite Images, Video, Images of Life: Freshwater Gallery, Marine Gallery, Terrestrial Gallery, and related Links.
Inuit ~ People of the Arctic: Unit 1: Inuit: Polar Environments by John Tyman. Includes lots of photos. Landforms and Climate, Ice & Snow and Soils, Insects and Vegetation, Animals and Birds, Human Impact and Environmental Issues, The Land: Past, Present and Future. Unit II: Food Sources - Sealing, Fishing, Hunting, Cooking and Eating, Changing Diets.
The Land of the Midnight Sun: Exploring the Alaskan Tundra from iwebquest.com. Why it stays light late into the night during Alaska's summers, Is the ground really frozen solid just a few inches below the soil? How do plants and animals survive the cold weather of the tundra?
Northwest Territories Wildlife & Animals. Photos: Bison, Cariboo, Goldeneye, Grizzly Bear and Cubs, Lynx, Moose Calf, Musk Oxen, Peregrine Falcon Chick, Polar Bear, Raven, Red Squirrel, Seal, Sheep, Sicsic (Camouflaged), and more.
Polar Ice Cap Biome from the Wild Classroom & Explore Diversity. Ice caps: We refer to the polar ice cap biome as the regions of the planet covered by ice most of the year. This includes large portions of the arctic and antarctic. Defining an Ice cap: A polar ice cap or polar ice sheet is a high-latitude region of a planet or moon that is covered in ice ... Polar ice caps do not have size, composition or geologic requirements of being over land, but they must be centered in the polar region.
Southern Arctic Ecozone: Images and quick facts of birds and animals:
Rough-legged Hawk 1, 2
Tundra Swan 1, 2
Barren-ground Caribou 1, 2
Wolverine 1, 2
Arctic Ground Squirrel
American Tree Sparrow 1, 2, 3, 4
Brown Lemming 1, 2, North American Brown Lemming 3, Siberian Brown Lemming 4
Grizzly Bear 1, 2
Lapland Longspur 1, 2, 3 breeding male, 4 breeding female
Willow Ptarmigan 1, 2
Oldsquaw or Long-Tailed Duck
Snow Bunting 1, 2, 3, 4
Gyrfalcon 1, 2, 3
Wolf 1, 2, 3 - Scroll down, click on "paw" to hear wolf howl
Canada Goose 1, 2, 3, 4 - Click on "song" to hear sound clip.
Terrestrial Ecozones - Nunavut from GeoGratis.gc.ca. "Ecozones are one of several levels of ecological regions that cover all of Canada. An ecozone is a discrete system, which has resulted from the mesh and interplay of geology, landform, soil, vegetation, climate, wildlife, water and human factors. Four of the fifteen terrestrial ecozones of Canada are found in Nunavut: Northern Arctic, Arctic Cordillera, Southern Arctic, and Taiga Shield."
Tundra or Alpine Biome from BluePlanetBiomes.org. Plants, Animals, Climate, Himalayan Mountains, Andes Mountains, Rocky Mountains. "In Latin the word for 'high mountain' is 'alpes'. . . Alpine biomes are found in the mountain regions all around the world. They are usually at an altitude of about 10,000 feet or more. The Alpine biome lies just below the snow line of a mountain."
Tundra from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation, Location, Example, Description.
Tundra. Where is the Tundra Located? Tundra Facts. Tundra Plants. Tundra Animals. Tundra Gallery. Tundra Links.
Tundra. There are two types of tundra in the world, Arctic and Alpine. The Arctic Tundra is at the top of the world around the North Pole. The tops of tall cold mountains are Alpine Tundra. Contents: Animals, Vegetation, Climate and Location, and Health Issues.
Tundra by Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. The tundra is the simplest biome in terms of species composition and food chains. Vegetation: lichens, mosses, sedges, perennial forbs, and dwarfed shrubs, (often heaths, but also birches and willows).
Tundra from TeachersFirst.com. Brief description of a tundra biome plus links to Web resources.
The Tundra Biome. Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain. Characteristics of Tundra. Two types of tundra: Arctic Tundra & Alpine Tundra.
Tundra Animal Printouts. Animals include: Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Tern, Arctic Wolf, Bighorn Sheep, Caribou, Dall Sheep, Ermine, Grasshopper, Hare, Lemming, Moose, Mosquito, Musk Ox, Polar Bear, Quoll, Reindeer, Short-Tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Squirrel, Wolf, Wolverine, Woodland Caribou, and Woolly Rhinocerous.
Tundra Biome from kidcyber.com.au. About 1/5 of earth is tundra. Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes . . . There is arctic tundra and alpine tundra. The climate is long and very cold, with a short summer.
Tundra Biome. The winters in the tundra can be as low as -57 degrees Celsius (-126 degrees F).
Tundra Biomes. Tundra, the "ice desert", "frozen prairie", the cold plains of the Far North get their name from the Finnish word "tunturia", which means barren or treeless land. Information on Arctic Tundra and Alpine Tundra. Includes Images of Tundra Biomes.