A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

of Months of the Year,
Days of the Week, and
Other Abbreviations of Time

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Abbreviations of Months of the Year

PLEASE NOTE: Abbreviations used on this page denote common usage unrelated to documenting sources. When documenting sources using MLA style, the months with four or fewer letters, e.g. May, June, and July are not abbreviated, the remaining months Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. are abbreviated. When documenting sources using APA style, no abbreviations are used, all months are spelled out in full.

1.   January - Jan. 2.   February - Feb.
3.   March - Mar. 4.   April - Apr.
5.   May - May 6.   June - Jun. or June
7.   July - Jul. or July 8.   August - Aug.
9.   September - Sep. or Sept. 10.  October - Oct.
11.  November - Nov. 12.  December - Dec.

Poem of Months of the Year

Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,
Excepting February alone,
Which hath twenty-eight days clear,
And twenty-nine in each leap year.

See Thirty days hath September from Wikipedia for more information.

Other related resources:

Origins and Meanings of the 12 Months from Almanac.

Why Are There 365 Days in a Year? from Ancient Origins.

Seasons of the Year

(Typically in North America)

spring - March, April, May
summer - June, July, August
autumn or fall - September, October, November
winter - December, January, February

Other related resources:

The Seasons on Earth from Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

What Causes Seasons on Earth? By Aparna Kher, timeanddate.com.

Why Has Date Changed for Start of Spring? By Joe Rao, Space.com. The first day of spring no longer falls on March 21. Spring season starts one day earlier on March 20 in all time zones in North America. In the years 2008 and 2012, those living in Alaska, Hawaii and the Pacific, Mountain and Central time zones will see spring begin even earlier: on March 19. And in 2016, it will start on March 19 for the entire United States (and most likely for Canada as well).

Abbreviations of Days of the Week

1. Sunday - Sun. 2. Monday - Mon.
3. Tuesday - Tu., Tue., or Tues. 4. Wednesday - Wed.
5. Thursday - Th., Thu., Thur., or Thurs. 6. Friday - Fri.
7. Saturday - Sat.

Poem of Days of the Week

Monday's child is fair of face,
Tuesday's child is full of grace,
Wednesday's child is full of woe,
Thursday's child has far to go,
Friday's child is loving and giving,
Saturday's child works hard for a living,
But the child who is born on the Sabbath Day
Is bonny and blithe and good and gay.

See Monday's Child from Wikipedia for more information.

Other related resources:

Origins of Days of the Week from h2g2 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: Earth Edition.

Shorthand Day Symbols by Sean B. Palmer, inamidst.com.

Explainer: The Gods Behind the Days of the Week from Ancient Origins.

Day of the Week. Find out what day of the week did a certain date fall on, by Stephen C. Phillips, University of Southampton, UK.

Week from Wikipedia.

Other Abbreviations of Time

second - sec. minute - min.
hour - hr. week - wk.
ante meridiem (before noon) - a.m. post meridiem (after noon) - p.m.
midnight - 12:00 a.m. noon - 12:00 p.m.
month - mo. year - yr.
century - cent. before Christ - BC or B.C. (e.g. 30 BC)
anno Domini (in the year of our Lord) after birth of Christ - AD or A.D. (e.g. AD 2022)
before common era - BCE or B.C.E. (same as BC) (e.g. 30 BCE) common era - CE or C.E. (Christian Era, same as AD) (e.g. 2022 CE)

See also:

What is the meaning of BC and AD? And what does BCE and CE mean? By Alex Carmichael, CARM (Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry), Mar 11, 2011.

12-hour clock from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. "In the United States ... noon is often called 12:00 p.m. and midnight 12:00 a.m., as at the beginning of a day. ... Strictly speaking, 12 A.M. denotes midnight, and 12 P.M. denotes noon, but there is sufficient confusion over these uses to make it advisable to use 12 noon and 12 midnight where clarity is required."

Origins of the Terms BC and AD by Laurie J. White, The Shorter Word.

Abbreviations of Time References from English Plus+.


Abbreviations of Time References from English Plus+.

● "Common Abbreviations." The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. Canadian ed. New York: Lexicon, 1988, CA1-8. (Above reference out of print. Closest match currently available: Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1996 ed.)

● Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003, 263.

MLA Handbook by Modern Language Association of America. Ninth Edition, 2021.

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