A Research Guide for Students

COVID-19 Coronavirus Around the World

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This web page is an extension of 616.241 COVID-19, Coronavirus, Pneumonia, (Viral pneumonia)


COVID-19 Outbreak Timeline from Wikimedia.org
COVID-19 Outbreak Timeline
starting January 12, 2020 with 41 cases in China.
Image showing confirmed cases by country/region
Image source: Wikimedia.org.

CONTENTS

1. What is COVID-19? - COVID-19 Vaccine
2. COVID-19 Statistics and News Around the World
3. COVID-19 Articles
4. COVID-19 in the United States
5. COVID-19 in Canada
6. COVID-19 in China
7. COVID-19 in Other Countries
8. COVID-19 Videos
9. COVID-19 Google Web Albums - Photos and Videos

Division of categories are for convenience only. In many cases, topics will be overlapped.

What is COVID-19?

2019-nCoV.jpg What is COVID-19? Professor Dave Explains Google image from https://i.ytimg.com/vi/TeCEnOY3jGs/maxresdefault.jpg YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeCEnOY3jGs
2019-nCoV aka SARS-CoV-2
This virus causes COVID-19
Image source: Professor Dave Explains, YouTube

Aerosol spread of coronavirus underscores importance of avoiding 'three Cs': Tam by Kerri Breen, Global News, 6 Nov. 2020. "Dr. Theresa Tam, Canada's chief public health officer, said at a press conference Friday [Nov. 6, 2020] that the potential for aerosol transmission highlights the importance of wearing a mask and avoiding the three Cs - closed spaces, crowded spaces and close contact."

Apple COVID19. COVID-19 Screening Tool. This tool can help you understand what to do next about COVID-19.
● About COVID-19. An up-to-date rundown of the virus and its symptoms.
● COVID-19 Testing. Current guidance on who should be tested and what to expect from test results.
● Choose a State from Alabama to Wyoming. See its Official Guidance and government website on coronavirus.
● What You Can Do. Information about social distancing, isolating from others and more.
● Support Yourself. Tips for keeping yourself physically and mentally healthy.
● This site was developed in partnership with The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Asymptomatic people with COVID-19 may spread virus as much as patients who cough by Julie Washington, cleveland.com, 1 Sep. 2020. "... research from South Korea published in JAMA Internal Medicine found that asymptomatic people have just as much coronavirus in their throats, lungs, and noses as those who do have symptoms ... Various studies say that between 20 and 45 percent of people who are COVID-19-positive are asymptomatic ... Asymptomatic people develop COVID-19 and never realize they had it. They don't experience fever, chills, cough or loss of smell or taste, doctors say ... Many researchers think that asymptomatic people have strong immune systems, as evidenced by the fact that children and young adults make up the majority of people without symptoms, because the immune system gets weaker with age."

Can people who are asymptomatic spread coronavirus? What we know right now by Amanda Capritto, CNET Health and Wellness, 21 Aug. 2020. If you're an asymptomatic carrier of a disease, it means you have the disease but don't show any symptoms. People can have COVID-19 without knowing it - and that's a huge threat to public health.

Coronavirus from Nat Geo Kids - National Geographic Kids. What Is Coronavirus? How did the coronavirus outbreak start? How is coronavirus spread? What are the symptoms of coronavirus? What can I do? What are people doing about coronavirus? Should I be worried? Things you can do.

Coronavirus disease 2019 from Wikipedia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions from U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Questions include:

Q: What is a novel coronavirus?
Q: What is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Q: How can I prevent COVID-19?
Q: What treatments are available for COVID-19?
Q: Can disinfectant sprays or wipes be used on my skin, injected, inhaled, or ingested to prevent or treat COVID-19?
Q. Is hand sanitizer effective against COVID-19?
Q: If I vape tobacco or nicotine am I at risk for complications from COVID-19?
Q: What is a biological medical product or a biologic?
Q: Are there any vaccines or other medical products to prevent COVID-19?
Q: Can SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, be transmitted by blood transfusion?
Q: Why aren't blood centers testing donors for SARS-CoV-2?
Q: Is it safe for me to donate blood during the coronavirus pandemic?
Q: What is convalescent plasma and why is it being investigated to treat COVID-19?
Q: I recently recovered from COVID-19, can I donate convalescent plasma?
Q: Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating COVID-19?
Q. Is remdesivir approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19?
Q: Are chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine sulfate approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19?
Q. How are people tested for COVID-19?
Q: Are there any tests that I can purchase to test myself at home for COVID-19?
Q: Should I purchase personal protective equipment such as facemasks or N95 respirators for me and my family?
Q: Is there a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, masks, and N95 respirators or of ventilators?
Q. Can 3D printing be used to make PPE?
Q: Will there be food shortages?
Q: Can I get COVID-19 from my pet or other animals?
Q: Is there a test for COVID-19 in pets?

Coronavirus Disease - Frequently Asked Questions from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). You can print out this 38-page FAQ. Also available in many different languages.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Basics
How COVID-19 Spreads
How to Protect Yourself
COVID-19 and Children
School Dismissals and Children
Children and Youth with Special Healthcare Needs
Preparing Your Home and Family for COVID-19
Warning Signs
In Case of an Outbreak in Your Community
Symptoms & Testing
Higher Risk
COVID-19 and Hypertension
Healthcare Professionals and Health Departments
COVID-19 and Funerals
What CDC is Doing
Cleaning and Disinfection
COVID-19 and Animals
Community Mitigation
COVID-19 and Water

COVID-19 Basics: Understanding the COVID-19 Pandemic. E-Learning course on COVID-19 Coronavirus offered by Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. Johns Hopkins University is hosting a free, publicly available course titled Understanding the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights from Johns Hopkins University Experts. This course is set up as a series of short modules to explore the COVID-19 pandemic. Registration is not required. The modules build on each other. The course begins with a discussion of the virus that causes COVID-19 and works its way to the pandemic's broader implications for society.

● Sample of a glimpse to E-Learning Module 4: Epidemiology: Understanding the Spread of COVID-19
Why is it important to understand the spread of disease?
What are the key differences between outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics?
In recent history, there have been about three flu pandemics per century. The frequency of pandemics will likely increase because we are so connected globally that disease can spread broadly and quickly.

COVID-19 - Science Brief: Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants from CDC, Jan. 28, 2021. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants are circulating globally. Several new variants emerged in the fall of 2020, most notably:
● In the United Kingdom (UK), a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 (known as 20I/501Y.V1, VOC 202012/01, or B.1.1.7) emerged with a large number of mutations ...
● In South Africa, another variant of SARS-CoV-2 (known as 20H/501Y.V2 or B.1.351) ...
● In Brazil, a variant of SARS-CoV-2 (known as P.1) emerged that was first was identified in four travelers from Brazil, who were tested during routine screening at Haneda airport outside Tokyo, Japan. This variant has 17 unique mutations, including three in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. This variant was detected in the US at the end of January 2021.

How COVID-19 symptoms develop, and how long they last by Emily Chung, CBC New, Apr 28, 2020. Recovery takes about 2 weeks for mild cases, a month or more for severe ones.

COVID-19: how to treat coronavirus at home by Milly Evans, Reviewed by Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE, Patient.info, Apr. 9, 2021. "The majority of people who are infected with coronavirus experience a mild or asymptomatic disease which can be treated at home ... The symptoms of COVID-19 ... include:
Fever (a temperature above 37.8°C or skin which feels hot to touch).
A new, continuous cough.
A loss of or change to your sense of smell or taste.
Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing.
Fatigue.
Headaches.
Sore throat.
Aches and pains.
If you experience fever, lose your sense of smell or taste or develop a new continuous cough, you should self-isolate immediately ...

Looking after yourself at home ... You should:
Drink plenty of fluids. Drink enough water so that your pee is a pale, clear colour.
Avoid alcohol as this will make you more dehydrated. There is also evidence that people with COVID-19 infection are prone to liver damage, which can be worsened by drinking alcohol.
Get plenty of rest. You should isolate yourself at home if you have any symptoms of coronavirus, and avoid any strenuous activity whilst you are unwell.
Use over-the-counter medicines to treat some of your symptoms ..."

Coronavirus: how quickly do COVID-19 symptoms develop and how long do they last? By Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE, Reviewed by Dr Colin Tidy, from Patient.info, Apr 7, 2020. Incubation - how long before symptoms start? Which symptoms come first? How and when do symptoms progress? The final outcome - how likely am I to die? How worried should I be?

How COVID-19 symptoms develop, and how long they last by Emily Chung, CBC News, Apr 28, 2020. Recovery takes about 2 weeks for mild cases, a month or more for severe ones.

How long does it take for symptoms of COVID-19 to appear? by Alex Bell, Medically reviewed by Meredith Goodwin, MD, FAAFP, Medical News Today, June 17, 2020.

Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it from World Health Organization (WHO).

● Dr. Mike Ryan, executive director of World Health Organization's emergencies program, said, "Viruses know no borders and they don't care about your ethnicity, the color of your skin or how much money you have in the bank. So it's really important we be careful in the language we use lest it lead to the profiling of individuals associated with the virus."

Yes, we long have referred to disease outbreaks by geographic places. Here's why we shouldn't anymore by Harmeet Kaur, CNN, 28 Mar. 2020. "Infectious diseases throughout history have been named for geographic locations where they were thought to have originated: Spanish flu, West Nile virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Zika and Ebola, to name a few. By that logic, it may seem that there's nothing inherently wrong with referring to the novel coronavirus as the 'Wuhan virus' or the 'Chinese virus,' language which President Donald Trump has used and defended using ... But the past has shown naming diseases after places can have negative consequences for nations, economies and people ... History indicates that when disease outbreaks occur, xenophobia or racism can follow."

Spit On, Yelled At, Attacked: Chinese-Americans Fear for Their Safety by Sabrina Tavernise and Richard A. Oppel Jr., 23 Mar. 2020. "As bigots blame them for the coronavirus and President Trump labels it the 'Chinese virus,' many Chinese-Americans say they are terrified of what could come next."

Attacking Asians won't kill the virus by Kate E. Lee, Newsday, 1 May 2020. "The coronavirus first seen in China is now ravaging the U.S., and Asian Americans are continuing to wrestle with a second epidemic: hate. Hundreds of attacks on Asian people have been reported, with few signs of decline."

● Official names have been announced for the virus responsible for COVID-19 (previously known as "2019 novel coronavirus") and the disease it causes. The official names are:
Disease - coronavirus disease - (COVID-19)
Virus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - (SARS-CoV-2)

● "Why do the virus and the disease have different names?
Viruses, and the diseases they cause, often have different names. For example, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. People often know the name of a disease, but not the name of the virus that causes it.

● Viruses are named based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines. Virologists and the wider scientific community do this work, so viruses are named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

● Diseases are named to enable discussion on disease prevention, spread, transmissibility, severity and treatment. Human disease preparedness and response is WHO's role, so diseases are officially named by WHO in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)."

Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19) from World Health Organization (WHO).
What is a coronavirus?
What is COVID-19?
What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
How does COVID-19 spread?
What can I do to protect myself and prevent the spread of disease?
How likely am I to catch COVID-19?
Should I worry about COVID-19?
Who is at risk of developing severe illness?
Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating the COVID-19?
Are there any medicines or therapies that can prevent or cure COVID-19?
Is there a vaccine, drug or treatment for COVID-19?
Is COVID-19 the same as SARS?
Should I wear a mask to protect myself?
How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask?
How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?
Can humans become infected with the COVID-19 from an animal source?
Can I catch COVID-19 from my pet?
How long does the virus survive on surfaces?
Is it safe to receive a package from any area where COVID-19 has been reported?
Is there anything I should not do?
Is the source of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 known?
How did the first human SARS-CoV-2 infections occur?
Can COVID-19 be spread through coins and banknotes?
How can I grocery shop safely in the time of COVID-19?
How to wash fruits and vegetables in the time of COVID-19?
Is COVID-19 airborne?
WHO COVID-19 website
WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) travel advice
Situation Reports

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus strain that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness. It is colloquially known as the coronavirus, and was previously referred to by its provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

*** The virus is not a living organism, but a protein molecule (RNA). Info and helpful advice on COVID-19 from Dr. Irene Ken, Johns Hopkins Hospital, March 2020. [Source not confirmed]. The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a non-profit academic medical center in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

*** At the Princess of Wales hospital, NHS staff have been sent this (circa March 2020): This is the advice given to hospital staff. It explains the virus and hopefully, how to prevent getting it. [Source not confirmed]. The Princess of Wales Hospital is a district general hospital in Bridgend, Wales, UK.

Expert: Coronavirus Isn't 'Alive,' But Still Harms by Robert Preidt, HealthDay Reporter, HealthDay News, WebMD, March 26, 2020.

The coronavirus isn't alive. That's why it's so hard to kill. from Washington Post, March 23, 2020. The science behind what makes this coronavirus so sneaky, deadly and difficult to defeat. "Viruses have spent billions of years perfecting the art of surviving without living - a frighteningly effective strategy that makes them a potent threat in today's world."

Coronavirus from World Health Organization (WHO). "Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

"Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.

Common Symptoms include: Fever, Cough, Fatigue, Lack of appetite, Loss of sense of smell or taste, Shortness of breath, Difficulty breathing, Mucus / phlegm, Body aches.
Symptoms usually begin 2 to 14 days after you come into contact with the virus.

Other symptoms may include: Sore throat, Headache, Muscle pain, Persistent pain or pressure in the hest, New confusion or inability to arouse, Bluish lips or face, Chills, Repeated shaking with chills, Stuffy nose, Nausea or vomiting, and Diarrhea.

Similarities and Differences between Flu and COVID-19​ from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). What is the difference between Influenza (Flu) and COVID-19? Influenza (Flu) and COVID-19 are both contagious respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses. COVID-19 is caused by infection with a new coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2) and flu is caused by infection with influenza viruses. Article contains more information about differences between flu and COVID-19.

Symptoms of Coronavirus from CDC. Fever or chills, Cough, Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, Fatigue, Muscle or body aches, Headache, New loss of taste or smell, Sore throat, Congestion or runny nose, Nausea or vomiting, Diarrhea. This list does not include all possible symptoms.

If you have any of the above symptoms, isolate yourself.

"In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.

Standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing."

Coronavirus (COVID-19) from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Older adults and people who have severe underlying chronic medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness.
Site provides practical guidelines and details on What You Need to Know to Protect Yourself and Others. Brief summary provided here.

Symptoms: The following symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure: Fever, Cough, Shortness of breath.

How to Protect Yourself:
1. Know How it Spreads - There is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
- The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus.
- The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
- Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 2 meters or 6 feet)
- Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
- These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Note: Coronavirus might spread much farther than 6 feet in the air. CDC says wear a mask in public. By Ramon Padilla and Javier Zarracina, USA TODAY, April 4, 2020. "Air contaminated with the COVID-19 virus might travel four times farther than the 6 feet. CDC asks we distance ourselves, according to a recent study."

2. Take steps to protect yourself:
- Clean your hands often.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
- Avoid close contact.
- Wear non-medical or cloth masks in public places where physical distancing may be difficult.

3. Take steps to protect others:
- Stay home. Only go out if you must.
- Wear a facemask if you are sick.
- Cover coughs and sneezes.
- Clean and disinfect. Take a SELF ASSESSMENT TEST.

Coronavirus Mortality Rate: How COVID-19 Fatalities Compare to Ebola, SARS and MERS by Kashmira Gander, Newsweek, Feb 27, 2020.

COVID-19: Doctor demonstrates breathing technique that could save your life. Video, min. Yahoo Canada Original Videos, April 6, 2020. Dr Sarfaraz Munshi's instructional video on breathing technique that could help you if you develop severe symptoms from COVID-19 disease. Dr. Munshi is a doctor (Urgent Care Lead) at the Queen's Hospital in London UK.

COVID-19: Containing and conquering a global health threat from F. Hoffmann-La Roche (Roche). "From initial outbreak to global pandemic: Because this was a new virus, nobody knew exactly how quickly the disease could be transmitted or how severely it would affect those infected. But as the outbreak unfolded, its lethal potential quickly became apparent. With no effective treatment, isolation became the most common form of containment. These measures helped but didn't stop COVID-19's inexorable march from city to city, then region to region, and ultimately country to country.

This novel coronavirus outbreak has affected more than 120,000 people worldwide and has since been classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). And the number of known cases continues to rise - it can now be found on every continent except Antarctica.

[Statistics as of March 16, 2020 - Coronavirus Cases: 182,723. Deaths: 7,174. Recovered: 79,883.
  Statistics as of April 5, 2020, 9:48 am GMT - Coronavirus Cases: 1,210,422. Deaths: 65,449. Recovered: 251,822]

While the virus is deadly for some, causing pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome or kidney failure, many who have it experience mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, making it much harder to detect and contain. It infects people of all ages. However, evidence to date suggests that two groups of people are at a higher risk of getting severe infections: older people and those with underlying medical conditions.

'You can't fight a virus if you don't know where it is. That means robust surveillance to find, isolate, test and treat every case, to break the chains of transmission. All countries must aim to stop transmission and prevent the spread of COVID-19, whether they face no cases, sporadic cases, clusters or community transmission,' said Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General."

COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund: Help WHO fight COVID-19. The greatest need right now is to help ensure all countries are prepared, especially those with the weakest health systems. Donations support WHO's work to track and understand the spread of the virus; to ensure patients get the care they need and frontline workers get essential supplies and information; and to accelerate efforts to develop vaccines, tests, and treatments.

COVID-19 Coronavirus One-on-One with Bill Gates on CNN, 26 March 2020. Google Photos - Short clips. Credits: CNN.

COVID-19 Coronavirus on the News, March 2020. Google Photos - Selected images from CNN, CP24, CBC News, and CTV News.

COVID-19 Coronavirus on the News, April 2020. Google Photos - Selected images from CNN, CP24, CBC News, and CTV News.

Covid-19 safety guidelines: How to protect yourself from Dhaka Tribune, Bangladesh, 21 Mar. 2020.
● Wash your hands regularly and thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to kills viruses that may be on your hands. If soap and water are not readily available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
● Maintain social distancing by keeping a distance of about six feet from others. When someone infected with Covid-19 coughs or sneezes, you can breathe in the droplets, including the Covid-19 virus.
● Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses.
● Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and make you sick.
● Stay home if you can, and avoid gatherings of more than 10 people.
● Practise respiratory hygiene. Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose used tissue immediately. Wear a mask if you are sick. You should wear a mask when you are around other people.
● Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces every day. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, handles, desks, computers, telephones, mobile phones, keyboards, sinks, toilets, water taps and countertops.
● Seek medical care early if you have COVID-19 symptoms: Fever, cough, fatigue, lack of appetite, difficulty breathing, mucus / phlegm, and body aches.
Other symptoms may include: Sore throat, headache, chills, stuffy nose, nausea / vomiting, and diarrhea.
● Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure. Call your doctor for medical advice if you think you have been exposed to Covid-19 and develop symptoms.
● Stay home if you feel unwell. Isolate yourself.

Coronavirus (covid-19): Latest news and resources from The BMJ (British Medical Journal). Articles include UPDATED Practice - Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): a guide for UK GPs. Practical guide for GPs on when to suspect covid-19 and how to respond.

Slowing down the covid-19 outbreak: changing behaviour by understanding it. Blog from BMJ, March 11, 2020. Changing people's transmission-related behaviours is becoming more urgent. (The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal. The journal used to be called the British Medical Journal, but in the 1980's, it became the BMJ.)

Here's What to Do if Someone Sneezes or Coughs Near You by Elyse Wanshel, Reporter, HuffPost Life, 24 Sep. 2020. "Fredrick Sherman, a professor at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, said that if you find yourself in a high-risk scenario in which someone sneezes or coughs near you, 'Immediately exhale to avoid inhaling droplets or aerosols. Purse your lips to make the exhaling last longer. Turn your head fully away from the person and begin walking.' This method won't definitively protect you from COVID-19, but it could reduce how much of the virus you're exposed to if the person who coughs or sneezes happens to be contagious. You're more likely to get sick if you inhale higher doses of the virus, according to The Atlantic."

How to Properly Put on and Take off a Disposable Respirator from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

A New COVID-19 Syndrome in Children Has Pediatricians on Alert, Says This Infectious Disease Expert by Mark Kortepeter, Contributor, Forbes, Coronavirus Frontlines, Healthcare, May 13, 2020. Mark Kortepeter is an infectious disease and public health physician, scientist, retired soldier, and author. "This new syndrome has features similar to ... 'Kawasaki' syndrome, named after the Japanese pediatrician who first described it ... It is called a 'syndrome,' because diagnosis requires a constellation of signs and symptoms, such as a rash, lymph node swelling in the neck, swelling of the hands and feet, peeling of the skin, a reddish, 'strawberry' tongue, bloodshot eyes, along with a high and persistent fever. One of the major complications of Kawasaki's is inflammation of the heart and dilation of the blood vessels that feed the heart."

At least 15 children in NYC are hospitalized with unusual inflammatory syndrome tied to COVID-19 by Rachael Rettner, Senior Writer, Live Science, May 5, 2020. "Symptoms of the syndrome can vary, but patients have been noted to have symptoms similar to those found in two rare conditions: toxic shock syndrome and Kawasaki disease."

More kids fall ill to mysterious Kawasaki-like disease as officials test for coronavirusby Adrianna Rodriguez, USA TODAY, May 11, 2020. "In New York City, at least 38 children are sick and one has died from the mystery illness that doctors say share similar symptoms with Kawasaki Disease. Almost all have tested positive for coronavirus or the antibodies that reflect exposure to the virus."

Ventilation for COVID-19. What actually happens when a patient is put on a ventilation machine. Graphic description of pain, suffering and discomfort of Coronavirus patients in a hospital posted by a nurse who works with ventilators (Info received by email 28 Nov. 2020). Photos of patients on ventilation and related resources on ventilators added.

Vitamin D levels appear to play role in COVID-19 mortality rates. Patients with severe deficiency are twice as likely to experience major complications. Source: Northwestern University, Science News, Science Daily, May 7, 2020. Researchers analyzed patient data from 10 countries. The team found a correlation between low vitamin D levels and hyperactive immune systems. Vitamin D strengths innate immunity and prevents overactive immune responses. The finding could explain several mysteries, including why children are unlikely to die from COVID-19.

What It Means to Be a Coronavirus "Long-Hauler": A Q&A about lingering symptoms of COVID-19 from Cleveland Clinic, July 10, 2020. "... most people fall into one of two groups when it comes to the virus. Approximately 80% of those with COVID-19 end up having a mild response and most of those cases resolve in about two weeks. For people who have a severe response to the virus, it can take between three and six weeks to recover ... A number of people are now reporting lingering symptoms of the illness for one, two or even three months. This new group is mixed with those who experienced both mild and severe cases ... many are referring to this group as coronavirus 'long-haulers' or 'long-termers.'

Meet the Covid-19 'long-haulers' whose symptoms won't seem to go away from the Advisory Board, June 9, 2020. "According to the World Health Organization (WHO), patients with Covid-19 typically recover from the disease in about two weeks' time, but there are a number of patients (long haulers or long termers) who have had Covid-19 for months - and experts aren't entirely sure why they can't shake the disease ... Daniel Kuritzkes, chief of the division of infectious diseases at Brigham and Women's Hospital, said, "Based on what we know about coronaviruses generally, it is very likely that all of these individuals will completely recover."

Google image frm https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2020/03/11/slowing-down-the-covid-19-outbreak-changing-behaviour-by-understanding-it/
Figure: A mental model of how to
block transmission of the virus
Image source: BMJ

VACCINE

Australia AstraZeneca is getting a new name - here's why by Penelope Pelecas, Starts at 60.news, Aug 19, 2021. The AstraZeneca jab is getting a rebrand - the vaccine will now be called Vaxzevria. A spokesperson from AstraZeneca has confirmed the correct way to say the new name is vax-ZEV-ria.

USA Biden announces order for 100 million more doses of Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine by Ed O'Keefe and Melissa Quinn, CBS News, Mar. 10, 2021.

America could soon be swimming in COVID-19 vaccines: The shift from scarcity to surplus could bring its own problems by Elizabeth Weise, USA TODAY, Mar. 9, 2021.

With Johnson & Johnson in the mix, here's how each U.S. state is doing with COVID vaccine distribution by Erika Fry and Nicolas Rapp, Fortune, Mar. 10, 2021.

leaf Canada authorizes one-shot COVID-19 vaccine from Johnson & Johnson by Rachel Aiello, Ottawa News Bureau Online Producer, CTV News, @rachaiello, Mar. 5, 2021. Health Canada has approved four vaccines after thorough scientific reviews for safety, efficacy and quality based on large, high-quality clinical trials:
1. Pfizer-BioNTech - approved on December 9, 2020
2. Moderna - approved on December 23, 2020
3. AstraZeneca - approved on February 26, 2021
4. Johnson & Johnson - approved on March 5, 2021

Canada did better than the U.S. against the coronavirus, but now it's lagging in vaccinations by Amanda Coletta, Washington Post, Mar. 11, 2021. "The United States, a world leader in vaccinations, has administered a dose to more than four times as many people per capita. President Biden expects to have enough supply to cover every adult in the United States by the end of May ... Canada expects to have vaccinated its adults by the end of September ...
'There is a tourism season ... ' Trevin Stratton, chief economist at the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, said, 'and if we miss that window, we might see a large number of tourists choosing to go to the United States instead of Canada.'
... Canadian officials said last week that the approval of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines means the country will have 117.9 million shots by the end of September - more than enough to cover the population [38.44 million]."

Canadians Won't Get Vaccinated First says Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, from CTV News, BC, 24 Nov. 2020.

CDC: When You've Been Fully Vaccinated. How to Protect Yourself and Others, from CDC, May 16, 2021. If you are fully vaccinated, you can resume activities that you did prior to the pandemic. Fully vaccinated people can resume activities without wearing a mask or physically distancing, except where required by federal, state, local, tribal, or territorial laws, rules, and regulations, including local business and workplace guidance.

China pledges 2 billion vaccines globally through year's end by Huizhong Wu, AP News, Aug. 6, 2021. President Xi Jinping made the announcement Thursday [Aug. 5, 2021] ... He also promised to donate $100 million to COVAX, the program that aims to distribute vaccines to low- and middle-income countries ... China has already delivered 770 million doses to foreign countries since September last year ... The U.S. has donated 110 million doses, mostly through COVAX, the White House said earlier this week. China's two biggest COVID vaccine makers, Sinopharm and Sinovac, have entered agreements to deliver up to 550 million doses through COVAX by the middle of next year ... the first deliveries under the U.N.-backed program will be made this month to Bangladesh, Pakistan and Algeria ... The Sinovac and Sinopharm vaccines, which both use inactivated viruses, have shown lower effectiveness against the delta variant but still provide some protection, according to Feng Zijian, an official at China's Center for Disease Control, who spoke to state broadcaster CCTV in June.

China's Sinovac coronavirus vaccine induces quick immune response: study by Miyoung Kim and Roxanne Liu, Global News, Reuters, 18 Nov. 2020. "CoronaVac and four other experimental vaccines developed in China are currently undergoing late-stage trials to determine their effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 ... Sinovac is currently running three Phase 3 trials in Indonesia, Brazil and Turkey ... Gang Zeng, a Sinovac researcher involved in the CoronaVac study, said the vaccine could be an attractive option because it can be stored at normal fridge temperatures of 2 to 8 degrees Celsius (36°-46°F) and may remain stable for up to three years. '[It] would offer some advantages for distribution to regions where access to refrigeration is challenging,' the author said ... CoronaVac is also being considered by Brazil and Indonesia for inoculations in the coming months. Indonesia has sought emergency authorisation to start a mass vaccination campaign by the end of the year and vaccines produced by Sinovac and China's Sinopharm are slated to be used in the early stages of the campaign."

Comparing COVID-19 Vaccines: Timelines, Types and Prices - UPDATED by Mark Terry, BioSace, Feb. 8, 2021.
* Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine - Doses: 2, 21 Days Apart, Price: $19.50 per dose for first 100 million doses. Efficacy: About 95%. Variants: Lab data suggest 'quite effective' against the UK variant as well as the South African and Latin American variants.
* Moderna - Doses: 2, 28 Days Apart, Price: $25-$37 per dose. Efficacy: About 95%. Variants: Lab data suggest 'quite effective' against the UK variant as well as the South African and Latin American variants.
* AstraZeneca-University of Oxford - Doses: 2, 28 Days Apart, Price: $3 per dose, variable by market. Efficacy: Currently about 70% overall. Variants: At least one study finds it has little effect against the South African variant, but appears effective against UK and Brazilian variants.
* Johnson & Johnson - Doses: 1, Price: $10 per dose. Efficacy: In J&J's global clinical trial, it demonstrated 66% efficacy at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infections. In the U.S. it was slightly higher, 72%. Appears to be 100% effective at preventing hospitalizations and death. Variants: Based on clinical studies in Africa, UK and Latin America, there is evidence the vaccine is effective against the variants, although less so against the South African and Latin American strains.
* Russia's Sputnik V Vaccine - Doses: 2, Price: $10 per dose. Efficacy: 91.4%. Variants: Unknown.
* China's two inactivated COVID-19 Vaccines produced by Sinopharm and Sinovac - Price to Chinese Government: 200 Yuan (30.89 USD, 39.22 CAD - Exchange rate as of 9 Jan. 2021) per dose.
* Sinovac Biotech: Doses: 2, Price: 200 Yuan per dose. Efficacy: 50.38% to 91.25%, depending on the clinical trial. Variants: Unknown, although a study in Brazil demonstrated 50.4% efficacy at preventing symptomatic infections.
* Novavax - Doses: 2. Price: $16 in the U.S. Efficacy: 89.3%. Variants: Effective against UK and South African.
* CanSino Biologics, another Chinese inactivated vaccine producer, has not yet disclosed its vaccine price. Doses: 1. Efficacy: 65.7% at preventing symptomatic cases; 90.98% efficacy in preventing severe disease. Variants: Unknown.

Coronavirus: Sinopharm applies for regulatory approval from China to launch vaccine, state media reports by Zhuang Pinghui, South China Morning Post, Reposted by Yahoo! News Canada, 25 Nov. 2020. "Two weeks ago, Sinopharm said its phase 3 trial was 'in the sprint stage' and all related data 'beat expectations'. Sinopharm chairman Liu Jingzhen also spoke about the safety of the candidates in an interview with a media outlet in Sichuan, saying the company had not received a single report of a severe adverse event and that there were only cases with 'some mild symptoms'. He also suggested that the vaccines were highly protective, saying that of the 56,000 people who had been given the China National Biotec Group (CNBG) coronavirus vaccine jab before heading to work and study in 150 countries, none had developed Covid-19. And in an overseas office, 81 employees were given the CNBG vaccine and none were infected, but of the 18 staff who were not given the jab, 10 were infected, Liu was quoted as saying in the interview. The two biosafety-rated facilities built by CNBG to make Covid-19 vaccines could manufacture 100 million doses this year and production capacity could be increased to 1 billion doses next year, Liu said this month."

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker from New York Times, Mar. 11, 2021 Google image from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html
Image source: New York Times

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker by Carl Zimmer, Jonathan Corum, and Sui-Lee Wee, New York Times, Updated Mar. 11, 2021.
March 11 - The European Union authorizes Johnson & Johnson's vaccine.
March 11 - Denmark, Iceland and Norway suspend the use of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine because of concerns about blood clots.
March 9 - Bavarian Nordic and the PREVENT-nCoV consortium enter Phase 1/2.
March 9 - China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences moves to Phase 2.
March 9 - Vietnam's Nanogen Biopharmaceutica moves to Phase 2.
March 5 - Canada authorizes Johnson & Johnson's vaccine.
March 4 - A vaccine from BioNet-Asia and Australia's Technovalia enters Phase 1.
March 4 - Cuba's Soberana 2 vaccine moves to Phase 3.
March 1 - Massachusetts-based VBI Vaccines enters Phase 1/2.
Feb. 27 - The Food and Drug Administration authorizes Johnson & Johnson's vaccine for emergency use.
Feb. 26 - Canada authorizes the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine for emergency use.
Feb. 25 - China approves two vaccines by CanSino and Sinopharm for general use.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker by Jonathan Corum, Sui-Lee Wee, and Carl Zimmer, New York Times, Nov. 16, 2020. Phase 1: 38 Vaccines testing safety and dosage. Phase 2: 17 Vaccines in expanded safety trials. Phase 3: 12 Vaccines in large-scale efficacy tests. Limited: 6 Vaccines approved for early or limited use. Approved: 0 Vaccines approved for full use. The Vaccine Testing Process: The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic. Genetic Vaccines: Vaccines that deliver one or more of the coronavirus's own genes into our cells to provoke an immune response.

● "The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed a vaccine based on an adenovirus called Ad5, in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country's Academy of Military Medical Sciences. In May [2020], they published promising results from a Phase 1 safety trial, and in July [2020] they reported that their Phase 2 trials demonstrated the vaccine produced a strong immune response.

In an unprecedented move, the Chinese military approved the vaccine on June 25 [2020] for a year as a 'specially needed drug.' CanSino would not say whether vaccination would be mandatory or optional for soldiers. Starting in August [2020], CanSino began running Phase 3 trials in a number of countries, including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Russia."

Covid: What do we know about China's coronavirus vaccines? By Yvette Tan, BBC News, 30 Dec 2020. "The Beijing-based biopharmaceutical company Sinovac is behind the CoronaVac, an inactivated vaccine. It works by using killed viral particles to expose the body's immune system to the virus without risking a serious disease response ... one of Sinovac's main advantages is that it can be stored in a standard refrigerator at 2-8 degrees Celsius, like the Oxford vaccine, which is made from a genetically engineered virus that causes the common cold in chimpanzees. Moderna's vaccine needs to be stored at -20C and Pfizer's vaccine at -70C ...

Sinopharm, a Chinese state-owned company, is developing two Covid-19 vaccines, which, like Sinovac are also inactivated vaccines that work in a similar way. Sinopharm announced on 30 December [2020] that phase three trials of the vaccine showed that it was 79% effective ... However, the United Arab Emirates, which approved a Sinopharm vaccine earlier this month, said the vaccine was 86% effective."

NOTE: All info on vaccination subject to change as time progresses.

leaf COVID-19 Vaccine - Getting a COVID-19 vaccine in Ontario.

When you can get the vaccine. Ontario has a three-phase plan that prioritizes vaccines for those at greatest risk of severe illness and those who care for them.
Phase 1 - High-risk populations, Dec. 2020 - Mar. 2021 - Staff, essential caregivers, residents of LTC/Retirement homes, Health care workers, Adults aged 80 and up.
Phase 2 - Mass deliveries of vaccines, Apr. 2021 - July 2021 - Adults aged 60-79, in 5-year increments.
Phase 3 - Steady state. Aug. 2021 on - General population.
Note: All timelines are subject to change depending on vaccine supply.

Ontario Ministry of Health COVID-19 Vaccine Information Sheet. Version 5.0 - April 1, 2021.

COVID-19: Stop the spread from Government of Ontario. Symptoms and treatment, What you need to do, Face coverings (non-medical masks), Get tested for COVID-19, How to self-isolate, How to care for someone with COVID-19, Travelling and returning.

Where to get vaccinated. Vaccines have been delivered to all 34 public health units, as well as some local hospitals in Ontario communities. Each public health unit is responsible for implementing a local vaccine plan.

Find your public health unit and contact them for information.
Public health unit locator from Ontario Ministry of Health. To find your local Public Health Unit, search by Postal Code or Municipality. Results will show details of your particular Public Health Unit: Health Unit Website, Name of Medical Officer of Health, Mailing Address, Phone Number, Fax Number, and After-Hour Phone Number. Ontario's vaccine booking system is available.

BOOK A VACCINE. Have your Health Card ready.

How to book a COVID-19 vaccine appointment in Ontario. Enter some information to find out how you can schedule your vaccine appointments. You can also do this for someone else, if you manage their medical care and appointments.

Booking your accelerated second dose: When you are eligible for your accelerated second dose, you can return to the same location you got your first dose or book an appointment at another location (even if you already have a second appointment booked).

You can book COVID-19 vaccine appointments through either selecting from option A or B.
Option A: The provincial online booking system.
Option B: A participating pharmacy.

Mississauga and Brampton have their own system and have already started vaccine booking on March 1, 2021. (See below for details on how and where to book vaccine appointments).

● When you find your public health unit, check their website for details about vaccination in your area. Example from Municipality of Peel (Region of Peel) website: Update on who can get the vaccine and how to register in Region of Peel.

leafBook a Vaccine Appointment in Peel. How to book your COVID-19 vaccine appointment and where clinics are located.

leaf Region of Peel: COVID-19 vaccine. Find out when Peel residents can get COVID-19 vaccines. Phone: 905-791-5202. Region of Peel consists of the municipalities of Brampton, Caledon and Mississauga.

leaf COVID-19 Vaccine. Mississauga - Trillium Health Partners vaccine clinic (THP Vaccine Clinic is Now Closed), and Brampton - William Osler Health System vaccine clinic. Book your appointment. Pre-register for your vaccine appointment. For help booking your vaccine appointment, call the Region of Peel COVID-19 Vaccination Line at 905-791-5202, 8 am to 8 pm, 7 days a week. Peel residents as well as Indigenous adults (First Nations, Inuit and Metis 18 years and older), and people who live within the Trillium Health Partners catchment area, including Mississauga and Etobicoke, are eligible to receive the COVID-19 vaccine when their turn comes up according to their age groups. A limited number of appointments are being offered at these 2 locations in Peel Region, Ontario, Canada, beginning March 1, 2021. Second Dose Appointments. High-risk health care workers, Indigenous adults and their household members, and individuals with specific highest-risk health conditions are eligible to receive an earlier second dose appointment.

leafPeel Public Health is operating a call centre dedicated to only COVID-19 enquiries, 8:30 am to 4:30 pm, Monday to Friday. Call 905-799-7700, Caledon 905-584-2216. Things are changing rapidly, so be sure you check to verify that current vaccine booking system applies to you. See also Region of Peel COVID-19 website.

leaf COVID-19 Vaccination Clinic at U of T Mississauga. Beginning Monday, March 1, 2021, U of T Mississauga, Trillium Health Partners and Peel Public Health will co-host a public vaccination clinic where health-care professionals will have the capacity to deliver 2,000 doses daily of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.
The initiative allows health-care officials to ramp up vaccination capacity over the coming weeks and months, as supply allows. Ultimately, the UTM site could vaccinate approximately 500,000 people.
More info: Vaccine eligibility, Clinic location and hours, Getting to the UTM Campus, About the COVID-19 Vaccination Clinic at UTM, Learn more about COVID-19 and community vaccination programs, Myths and facts about COVID-19 vaccines, FAQ.

leaf COVID-19 pharmacy vaccine locations from Government of Ontario, Mar. 20, 2021. Find your closest pharmacy to check if you qualify to get the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. You must have an appointment to get vaccinated at a participating pharmacy. To book an appointment, you must have a valid Ontario health (OHIP) card, or other form of valid government-issued identification.

leaf COVID-19: Vaccines - City of Toronto. The City of Toronto will open some COVID-19 immunization clinics beginning March 12, 2021, Toronto residents age 75 and over can book a vaccination appointment online for one of 3 Toronto vaccine locations, including the Toronto Convention Centre. Later, there will be 9 vaccine clinics available for Toronto residents. Select date and time of first and second doses (112 days after first dose) when you book your appointment. Confirmation of your appointment will be by email or by phone as the preference you have specified when booking online.
Only one appointment booking per person is allowed. Please do not access the online booking tool, book by phone, or book by chat unless you are qualified to pre-register to get the vaccine at time of booking. Once registered, you will remain eligible for your second dose. Do not register again for second dose. Do not go to the vaccine clinic unless you have a confirmed appointment.

leaf COVID-19: How to Get Vaccinated in Toronto. To make an appointment for vaccination in the Greater Toronto Hamilton Area (GTHA), call Provincial Vaccine Information Line at 1-888-999-6488 (TTY 1-866-797-0007). Find a clinic location. Book a Vaccine Toronto.

leaf COVID-19 Vaccination Clinics in Toronto Region. When booking online, input a Postal Code to sort by distance. You may select the vaccine clinic closest to where you live. Select the date and time for your vaccine, and confirm your booking.
Some vaccine clinics accept booking by phone and their phone numbers are provided. Example: Book by Phone at 1-888-385-1910.
You can also Book by Chat. You must provide your name and your email address when booking by Chat. Toronto Region Vaccine Booking Centre Hours: 8:00am - 8:00pm.

leaf COVID-19 Vaccine in British Columbia, Canada: Call to find out if you qualify to get vaccinated. Find your health authority by community name to get the right phone number. B.C.'s COVID-19 Immunization Plan.

leaf COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Quebec. Make an appointment to get vaccinated.

What to Expect after Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine from Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), Jan. 11, 2021. Common side effects, Helpful tips, When to call the doctor, Scheduling your second shot? About your second shot, With most COVID-19 vaccines, you will need 2 shots in order for them to work. Get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get a second shot. It takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination. COVID-19 vaccines that require 2 shots may not protect you until a week or two after your second shot.

Efficacy for Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine was around 95% after both doses and 52% after the first, according to clinical data. For Moderna's vaccine, it was about 80% after one dose and 94% following the second. Note: Consensus on first dose of vaccine efficacy has changed since Jan. 11, 2021, depending on who is talking. A behind-the-scenes look at why Canada delayed 2nd doses of COVID-19 vaccine [by up to 4 months or 120 days] by Adam Miller, CBC News, Mar. 6, 2021.

USA COVID-19 Vaccine - United States: See How the Vaccine Rollout Is Going in Your State from New York Times.

When You've Been Fully Vaccinated: How to Protect Yourself and Others from CDC, Mar. 9, 2021. "People are considered fully vaccinated: 2 weeks after their second dose in a 2-dose series, like the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or 2 weeks after a single-dose vaccine, like Johnson & Johnson's Janssen vaccine." Guidance for Fully Vaccinated People.
Different COVID-19 Vaccines: Detailed information on
1. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine.
2. Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine.
3. Johnson & Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine.

USA How to Get a Covid-19 Vaccine: a State-by-State Guide from Wall Street Journal. Each state is different, with some allowing residents to preregister and others coordinating via employer or local health department. Use the vaccine site locator provided on this site: Where to Find Your State's Covid-19 Vaccine Information to select your state to find information about getting vaccinated. Click on your selected State's Website and you will be directed to its COVID-19 Vaccination Program Landing Page. Some States also provide you with a hotline telephone number to call.

USA Example from New York: COVID-19 Vaccine - Phased Distribution of the Vaccine. Phone: 833-697-4829.

USA Example from Oklahoma: COVID-19 VACCINE INFORMATION. Phone: 405-425-4489. "The State's COVID-19 vaccine scheduling tool is available for pre-registration, please click here to fill out the required questionnaire." Note: COVID-19 Vaccinating Appointments are for Oklahoma residents only.

USA Example from Texas: COVID-19 Vaccination Hub Providers. Vaccine Hub Provider List with detail contact info for: County, Provider Name, Public Phone Number, Public Registration or Website.
You can also check out the Texas COVID-19 Vaccine Availability Map to find a Community Vaccine Provider near you with vaccine available. "You need to contact providers in advance to confirm vaccination location and hours, that they have vaccine on hand, and that you are eligible for vaccination at that site. Not all providers are vaccinating the public or people in all priority groups. Vaccine is available at no charge, regardless of insurance status." Please do not call if you can find answers on their websites.

COVID-19 Vaccine Latest News: Sinopharm Seeks China's Approval to Launch Anti-Coronavirus Vaccines by Team Latestly, 25 Nov. 2020. "Beijing, November 25: Chinese state-owned pharmaceutical company Sinopharm on Wednesday said it has applied with the country's regulators to launch its vaccine against coronavirus (COVID-19) in markets. Sinopharm General Manager Shi Shengyi made the announcement, reports said. A shot of Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine was recently given to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Prime Minister and the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum."

COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Need to Know. COVID-19 Vaccines: Infographic from Johns Hopkins Medicine. "How do the vaccines work? There are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines: messenger RNA (mRNA), protein subunit and vector. All three vaccine types either deliver, or cause our bodies to make, harmless proteins only found on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. After we are vaccinated, our immune system recognizes these proteins as foreign, and it attacks and blocks the virus if we get exposed to it."

Canada Goodbye Pfizer, hello Comirnaty: top COVID-19 vaccines renamed in Canada. Health Canada has approved new monikers for Pfizer, Moderna and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines and announced the change on social media today [Sep. 16, 2021]. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has now been dubbed Comirnaty (pronounced koh-MIHR'-nuh-tee), which the company says represents a combination of the terms COVID-19, mRNA, community, and immunity. The Moderna vaccine will go by SpikeVax and the AstraZeneca vaccine will be named Vaxzevria (pronounced vax-ZEV-ria).

Pfizer, Moderna COVID-19 vaccines get full Health Canada approval - and new names by Rachel Gilmore, Global News, Sep 16, 2021.
Health Canada authorizes new names for COVID-19 vaccines by Sonja Puzic, CTVNews.ca, Sep 16, 2021.

How Canada rose to the top for 1st doses of COVID-19 vaccine from CBC, Yahoo! News Canada, June 14, 2021. "According to online research publication Our World in Data, Canada has just nudged out Israel to top the global pack, having doled out at least one dose to more than 64 per cent of its citizens. Israel, now trailing Canada, has given first doses to 63 per cent of its citizens. Canada's rise to the top is mostly due to 'the culture' of Canada says American cardiologist and researcher Eric Topol. In an interview with CBC News, Eric Topol said Canadians are more science-based, less vaccine-hesitant and certainly less likely to be 'anti-vaxx' than those in his own country [United States]."

In China, nearly 1 million people have reportedly already gotten a coronavirus vaccine by Lili Pike, Vox, 25 Nov. 2020. "China's emergency vaccine program is a risky proof of concept for large-scale Covid-19 vaccine deployment ... China is also vying to be the leader in vaccine development and distribution: Chinese companies have five of the 13 vaccines in phase 3 trials. Sinopharm's vaccines are already being deployed outside China - the United Arab Emirates has also approved the vaccines for emergency use."

leaf Immunization committee to recommend provinces stop giving AstraZeneca vaccine to those under 55: sources from CBC News, Health, Mar. 29, 2021. "Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) is expected to recommend today a pause in the use of the AstraZeneca-Oxford COVID-19 vaccine on those under the age of 55 because of safety concerns, sources told CBC News.

The updated guidelines will be issued later today, according to sources who spoke on the condition of anonymity. The expected change comes following reports of rare blood clots in some immunized patients.

Canada is expected to receive 1.5 million doses of this product from the U.S. on Tuesday [March 30, 2021].

The AstraZeneca shot has not been widely used in people under the age of 55 in this country. Some jurisdictions, such as P.E.I., have been using some of their supply to immunize young people who work in public-facing sectors like grocery and convenience stores. In New Brunswick, the shot was made available to first responders and some teachers last week.

A spokesperson for P.E.I.'s health department confirmed use of the vaccine had been suspended."

Israel's Covid vaccine rollout is the fastest in the world - here are some lessons for the rest of us by Holly Ellyatt, Health and Science, CNBC, 8 Jan. 2021. "While the U.S. and Europe attempt to ramp up their own Covid vaccination drives, Israel is outpacing them all. Israel's vaccination drive began on Dec. 19, with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu the first person to be vaccinated in the country. Priority has been given to people aged over 60, health care workers and anyone clinically vulnerable - reported to make up around a quarter of its 9 million population.

Johnson & Johnson vaccine paused over rare blood clots from BBC, Apr. 13, 2021. "The US, South Africa and European Union will temporarily stop the rollout of the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) Covid jab, after reports of rare blood clotting. Six cases were detected in more than 6.8 million doses of the vaccine, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said. Johnson & Johnson has paused its EU rollout, which started this week. It follows similar cases after doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine, which prompted curbs to its use. The FDA said it was recommending the temporary pause "out of an abundance of caution". It confirmed that one patient died from blood clotting complications, and another is in a critical condition. All six cases were in women aged between 18 and 48, with symptoms appearing six to 13 days after vaccination."

Moderna says its COVID-19 vaccine is 94.5 per cent effective by Ivan Semeniuk, Science Reporter, Globe and Mail [Toronto], Nov. 16, 2020. "On Monday [Nov. 16, 2020], the U.S.-based biotechnology company Moderna Inc. said that interim results from a Phase 3 study of its mRNA-1273 vaccine show the vaccine is 94.5 per cent effective and has raised no serious safety concerns. The announcement comes just one week after similarly promising news from another COVID-19 vaccine, produced jointly by the pharmaceutical companies Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech. Both vaccines are among those that Canada arranged to purchase pending regulatory approval. In the case of the Moderna vaccine, the agreement consists of 56 million doses.

Novavax vaccine 89% effective against coronavirus in U.K. trial by Lauran Neergaard, Associated Press, Global News, 28 Jan 2021. "A preliminary analysis found over half of the trial participants who became infected had the mutated version. The numbers are very small but Novavax said they suggest the vaccine is nearly 96 per cent effective against the older coronavirus and nearly 86 per cent effective against the new variant."

One dose of the AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccine provides protection against COVID-19 that lasts at least 10 weeks, study finds by Dr. Catherine Schuster-Bruce, Business Insider, Apr. 22, 2021. One dose of a Pfizer-BioNTech or AstraZeneca-Oxford jab cut COVID-19 infections by 65% in a study. Effectiveness rose to 72% against COVID-19 with symptoms in the UK survey of about 375,000 people. Antibody responses lasted at least 10 weeks for both vaccines, the study found.

USA Pfizer Begins Coronavirus Vaccine Trial in U.S. by Joe Palca, NPR, Washington DC, May 5, 2020.

USA Pfizer COVID-19 third shot: FDA panel rejects boosters for general public by Clifford Colby, CNET Health and Wellness, Sep. 19, 2021. On Friday [Sep. 18, 2021], an FDA committee recommended booster shots only to Americans at high risk of infection and those age 65 and older.

Pfizer's Covid Vaccine: 11 Things You Need to Know by Carl Zimmer and Katie Thomas, New York Times, Nov. 12, 2020. "Pfizer and its partner, the German company, BioNTech, announced preliminary results that suggested their vaccine was more than 90 percent effective ... So far, 94 participants out of nearly 44,000 have gotten sick with Covid-19. An independent board of experts looked at how many of those people got the vaccine, and how many got the placebo. That early analysis suggests the vaccine is over 90 percent effective ... Pfizer and BioNTech say they could ramp up to 1.3 billion doses a year."

Pfizer's vaccine could be less effective against the Delta variant, study suggests, even though vaccines help prevent serious illness or death by Ashley Collman, Business Insider, Aug. 12, 2021.

Q&A: Where are we in the COVID-19 vaccine race? By Carl O'Donnell, Reuters, Nov. 6, 2020. "U.S. drugmaker Pfizer Inc PFE.N with German partner BioNTech SE 22UAy.F, and U.S. biotech Moderna Inc MRNA.O could have early data in November. Britain-based AstraZeneca Plc AZN.L, in conjunction with University of Oxford, and Johnson & Johnson JNJ.N say they are on track to deliver data for their vaccines this year ... China and Russia are on a similar timeline. China launched an emergency use program in July aimed at essential workers and others at high risk of infection that has vaccinated hundreds of thousands of people. At least four vaccines are far along including from China National Biotec Group [CHNAPF.UL] (CNBG), CanSino Biologics 6185.HK and Sinovac. Sinovac and CNBG have said to expect early trial data as soon as November. Russia's Gamaleya Institute has begun a 40,000-person late-stage trial and is expected to have early data in November. Russia has also given the vaccine to at least hundreds of 'high-risk' members of the general population."

Russia approves coronavirus vaccine before final clinical trials are completed from CBC News, August 11, 2020. "President Vladimir Putin said on Tuesday that Russia had become the first country in the world to grant regulatory approval to a coronavirus vaccine, after less than two months of human testing, a move hailed by Moscow as evidence of its scientific prowess.

The vaccine, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, still has to complete final trials, raising serious concerns among some scientific experts about the speed of its approval, but Russian business conglomerate Sistema has said it expects to put it into mass production by the end of the year ...

Kirill Dmitriev, head of Russia's sovereign wealth fund, hailed the development as a historic 'Sputnik moment,' comparable to the Soviet Union's 1957 launch of Sputnik I, the world's first satellite. The vaccine will be marketed under the name 'Sputnik V' on foreign markets, he said." ~ "V" stands for "Vaccine".

Russia claims that "Sputnik V" is the first registered COVID-19 Vaccine in the world, much like the first Sputnik launched by Russia in 1957.

Russia says Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine 95 per cent effective, CTV News, 24 Nov. 2020.

Russia's Sputnik COVID-19 vaccine to cost less than $20 per person internationally by Andrew Osborn and Polina Nikolskaya, MOSCOW Reuters, 24 Nov. 2020.

Russia plans to produce 1 billion doses of its 'cheaper' Covid vaccine by Holly Ellyatt, CNBC, 24 Nov. 2020.

Note: "The launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 shocked many Americans, who had assumed that their country was technologically ahead of the Soviet Union, and led to the 'space race' between the two countries.

Sputnik 2, launched on November 3, 1957, carried the dog Laika, the first living creature to be shot into space and orbit Earth.

Sputnik 3, launched on May 15, 1958, carried 12 instruments to study Earth's upper atmosphere and space and was also the heaviest satellite to that time, weighing 1,327 kg (2,926 pounds). Sputnik 3 was originally intended to be the first satellite, but its complexity and size led the Soviets to launch the much simpler Sputnik 1 to beat the United States into space." ~ Info from Encyclopædia Britannica.

Study finds COVID-19 vaccine may reduce virus transmission by Danica Kirka and Lauran Neergaard, The Associated Press, Toronto Star, Feb. 3, 2021. "AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine does more than prevent people from falling seriously ill - it appears to reduce transmission of the virus and offers strong protection for three months on just a single dose ..."

Three reports support arguments for booster doses of Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine by Maggie Fox, Jacqueline Howard and Jamie Gumbrecht, CNN, Sep. 15, 2021.

p>Turkish Official Says CoronaVac Vaccine 91.25% Effectiveby Associated Press, Wire Service Content, U.S. News, 24 Dec. 2020. "An infectious disease expert serving on Turkey's medical board says an experimental COVID-19 vaccine developed by Chinese biopharmaceutical company Sinovac is 91.25% effective based on early results of late-stage trials in the country."

CoronaVac from Wikipedia. "CoronaVac is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by the Chinese biopharmaceutical company Sinovac.

● On January 7, 2021 ... Instituto Butantan of Brazil announced the vaccine was 78% effective in mild cases and 100% effective against severe and moderate infections based on 220 COVID-19 cases from 13,000 volunteers.

● Brazil announced, on January 12, 2021, an efficacy rate of 50.38% based on full data of a trial with 12,508 participants.

● Turkey ... announced [Dec. 24, 2020] an efficacy rate of 91.25% from interim analysis of 29 cases based only on the data of 1,322 participants in a trial with 7,371 volunteers.

● Indonesia announced an efficacy rate of 65.3% based on data from just 1,600 participants in the city of Bandung." Jan. 11, 2021: Indonesia Is First to Approve Sinovac Vaccine Outside China. A rate of 65% exceeds the 50% threshold that the World Health Organization and many regulatory authorities consider necessary for widespread use. Western vaccines developed by Moderna Inc. and jointly by Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech SE have reported their vaccines to be more than 90% effective; another developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca PLC was at least 62% effective, according to the team.

US government strikes $1.525 billion deal with Moderna for 100 million doses of its Covid-19 vaccine by Jen Christensen, CNN, August 11, 2020.

The Vaccination Gap and Its Implications by Douglas Porter, CFA; Robert Kavcic; Erik Johnson; and, Benjamin Reitzes, BMO Economics Focus, February 19, 2021. "In Canada, employment is still down more than 850,000 (or 4.5%) from February 2020 levels, but over 70% of that is comprised by two major sectors: hospitality (hotels & restaurants) and trade (retail & wholesale). Similarly, of the nearly 10 million jobs still missing from the U.S. economy, almost 40% are in leisure and hospitality alone. No amount of additional government stimulus will allow those sectors to fully reopen - the game-changer will be broad COVID-19 vaccination. Wider immunity to COVID-19 will enable consumers to shift back to purchasing in-person services, thereby supercharging economic growth in the second half of the year.
The good news is that both countries are on track to vaccinate at least 70% of their adult (over 18) populations this year."

You Can Now Get a COVID-19 Vaccine in China. That Might Not Be a Good Thing by Charlie Campbell, Shanghai, TIME, Oct. 22, 2020. "Two injections of CoronaVac made by SinoVac (otherwise known as Beijing Kexing Bioproducts) cost 2,000 rmb ($300) at the private Taihe Hospital in the Chinese capital. The treatment still hasn't passed final (Stage 3) clinical trials but is already being offered to the public on a first come, first served basis. Anyone can turn up, pay their money and get the jab. Li says hundreds were queuing to get immunized ..."



2. COVID-19 Statistics and News Around the World

STATISTICS, LATEST UPDATES:

Bar Chart - Selected Deaths vs COVID-19 from World Life Expectancy. Worldodometer bar chart of COVD-19 deaths gives comparisons to deaths from other diseases. The base date is March 1, 2020 and the slider runs up to today. This tool simulates how COVID-19 deaths rank against selected causes of death for virtually every country in the world. Historical averages of selected causes are used for each country. Covid-19 deaths are current for each country and updated daily. ~ Tom LeDuc, founder of Global Life Partners.

Bing: COVID-19 Tracker. Current total confirmed cases: Active cases, Recovered cases, Fatal cases. Global, United States, Spain, Italy, UK, Germany, Canada, and other countries. Stay safe, stay informed. Latest trends, Overview, News, Videos, Maps, Graphs.

CNN: Tracking coronavirus' global spread. Coronavirus maps and cases by Henrik Pettersson, Byron Manley and Sergio Hernandez, CNN.

COVID-19 Cases by Countries - Tracking Covid-19's global spread by Henrik Pettersson, Byron Manley and Sergio Hernandez, CNN. May 20, 2021. The disease has spread to every continent and case numbers continue to rise. Authorities in 219 countries and territories have reported about 165 million Covid‑19 cases and 3.4 million deaths since China reported its first cases to the World Health Organization (WHO) in December 2019.

COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Coronavirus Resource Center at Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. Follow global cases and trends. Updated daily.
COVID-19 World Map showing COVID-19 statistics, updated LIVE. Total Cases, Total Deaths, Total Vaccine Doses Administered, 28-Day Cases, 28-Day Deaths, 28-Day Vaccine Doses Administered.
Cases | Deaths by Country/Region/Sovereignty - U.S., India, Indonesia, Brazil, UK, Iran, Russia, Spain ...
See the Latest Data in Your Region.
COVID-19 U.S. Map - Select States/Territories, Select County, Top 25 Confirmed Cases by County.
Data Visualizations - Track how the novel coronavirus is spreading around the globe with up-to-date visuals.

COVID Data Tracker from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Find maps and charts tracking cases, deaths, and trends of COVID-19 in the United States, updated daily by 8 pm ET.

COVID Data Tracker Weekly Review from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

COVID-19 Coronavirus Outbreak from worldometers.info. View world statistics on cases of Coronavirus (COVID-19) or view statistics by country. Case Graphs - Death Graphs - Countries - Death Rate - Incubation - Age - Symptoms - News.

COVID-19 Coronavirus Tracker. Updated regularly from Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF). This tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel coronavirus by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Coronavirus Resource Center's COVID-19 Map and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.


Coronavirus News from news.com.au. World Coronavirus. COVID-19 Australian Statistics. Coronavirus Australia. Coronavirus Global.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) current situation and case numbers from Department of Health, Australian Government. Current status in Australia, Across the world, How Australia is managing the outbreak.

leaf Canada: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and Outbreak Update from the Government of Canada.

Coronavirus: The Race to Respond and Coronavirus Live Updates from CBS News, United States.

Coronavirus Disease - COVID-19 What's New from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Latest Updates - Around the World from CNBC, United States.

leaf Coronavirus from globalnews.ca.

leaf Coronavirus (COVID-19) Latest Update from Region of Peel.

Coronavirus (COVID-19), Latest on Coronavirus, State-by-State News, COVID-19 Map on Bing from MSN, United States.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Latest Updates from NBC News, Universal. (NBC News Digital features world-class brands including NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Latest Updates from New York Times, United States.

Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest Map and Case Count from New York Times.

Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak: Latest news, information and updates from Pharmaceutical Technology.

Coronavirus: News and live updates from Yahoo! News.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports daily report in PDF from World Health Organization (WHO). SITUATION IN NUMBERS total. Confirmed Cases and Number of Deaths: Globally, European Region, Region of the Americas, Western Pacific Region, Eastern Mediterranean Region, South-East Asia Region, African Region. WHO RISK ASSESSMENT: Global Level - Very High.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Myth busters from World Health Organization (WHO).

COVID-19/Coronavirus - Facts and Figures from Statista, 10 July 2020. COVID-19 is the official name for the coronavirus disease 2019. The disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which had not previously been identified in humans. More than eleven million cases have been confirmed globally, and the death toll has passed 525,000.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic- Statistics & Facts by John Elflein, Jul 10, 2020. As of July 10, 2020, there had been cases of the disease in around 210 countries or territories across 6 continents. China was initially the country most impacted by the disease, however the United States, Brazil, India, and Russia, now have the most cases worldwide. As of this time, there had been around 12.39 million cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with over 3.2 million of these cases found in the United States.

COVID 19 News. Coronavirus Latest Updates from News18, India.

COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC from Worldometers.info. Case Graphs, Death Graphs, Countries, Death Rate, Incubation, Age, Symptoms, News. Statistics: Total Number of Coronavirus Cases (view by country), Deaths, and Recovered.

COVID-19 Data in Motion. A 60-second, daily summary of the most important data on COVID-19 in the U.S., updated every morning, from Coronavirus Resource Centre, Johns Hopkins University & Medicine.

By Region. See the latest data in your region. Explore stats and trends specific to your country or U.S. state.

● Examples in the United States: Alaska, California, Florida, New York, Texas.

● Examples in Other Countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, United Kingdom, - Statistics for Coronavirus New Cases, New Deaths, Record Highs. Overview, All Time, Past Day, Past Week, or Past Month Statistics.

COVID-19 Stats. View all data or a single continent's page by clicking the region name, e.g. All Regions, World, USA, Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, China, Canada, Australia, Oceania, South America, North America, Middle East. Site created by Avi Schiffmann, a high schooler in Washington State, USA.

3. COVID-19 Articles

5 money lessons we can learn from COVID-19 by Denise O'Connell, MoneyTalk Life, June 2020.

11 Ways You're Catching COVID Without Realizing It by Monika Stuczen, MD, Yahoo! Style, Jan. 31, 2021. "Home deliveries are less risky than a supermarket shopping however there is still a risk of possible contamination of the surface of any food or package or from the delivery driver. The best practice is to dispose[s] of the boxes and then to wash your hands after handling packages, says Dr. Fauci ... Using public transport provides one of the biggest risks of getting COVID-19. Apart from the possibility of breathing in the droplets of the virus from the air, there is a risk of getting infected by touching surfaces. COVID-19 can survive on the surfaces for up to 5 days."

16 coronavirus tips: How to help keep yourself healthy when going out in public by Jessica Dolcourt, Health and Wellness, CNET, May 13, 2020. "... shop swiftly and efficiently. Now's the time to get what you want and get out, not to browse aisles as a way to pass the hours ... Don't sort through produce with your bare hands ... When sorting through food, use a glove or stick your hand inside a fresh, store-supplied bag ... Whatever you do, touching's off limits ... resist the urge to hug, tap elbows or get anywhere closer than six feet ... Along with social distancing, washing your hands thoroughly is one of your best defenses against acquiring the coronavirus. Give your hands a thorough scrub each time you get back ...

35 Places You're Most Likely to Catch COVID by Kelly Hernandez, Eat This, Not That! Dec. 15, 2020. "As long as you don't choose a crowded gas station that prevents social distancing, you should be relatively safe pumping gas. However, it's important to consider all the hands that have touched the pump and buttons before you. 'Use disinfecting wipes on handles and buttons before you touch them,' the CDC recommends. When you're done pumping, use hand sanitizer and don't touch your face until you can thoroughly wash your hands to lower your risk."

Avoid Coronavirus Scams from FTC. March 2020. Scammers are taking advantage of fears surrounding the Coronavirus.
- Tips: Hang up on robocalls.
- Fact-check information. Know who the seller really is. Check out the seller by searching online for the person or company's name, phone number and email address, plus words like "review," "complaint" or "scam."
- Don't respond to texts and emails about checks from the government.
- Don't click on links from sources you don't know. They could download viruses onto your computer or device.
- Watch for emails claiming to be from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or experts saying they have information about the virus. For the most up-to-date information about the Coronavirus - COVID-19, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
- Ignore online offers for vaccinations. Currently, there are no vaccines, pills, potions, lotions, lozenges or other prescription or over-the-counter products available to treat or cure Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - online or in stores.
- Do your homework when it comes to donations, whether through charities or crowdfunding sites. If someone wants donations in cash, by gift card, or by wiring money, don't do it.

Don't Fall for These 7 Coronavirus Scams by Kailey Hagen, The Motley Fool, Apr 14, 2020. COVID-19 swindles are costing Americans millions. Here's what you need to know to protect yourself. 1. Stimulus check scams. 2. COVID-19 product and treatment scams. 3. Work-from-home scams. 4. Debt reduction scams. 5. A sick family member. 6. Fake websites with exclusive COVID-19 information. 7. Charity scams.

Coronavirus Advice for Consumers: Avoid Coronavirus Scams from Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

Kingston Police warn of scammers exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic by Jessica Foley, Kingstonist, July 23, 2021. Scammers are preying on the public's fear and sending various scam-based emails related to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Examples of types of scams.

Billionaires' Wealth Surges to a Record $10.2 Trillion During the Pandemic by James Phillipps, Contributor, Investing, Forbes, 6 Oct. 2020.

CDC: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients most likely to show these 3 symptoms by Abby Haglage, Yahoo Life, July 17, 2020. "As cases of COVID-19 continue to spread, infecting more than 13 million people worldwide, experts are still studying exactly how the virus manifests. In the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, the organization shared a more in-depth look at patients with COVID-19 in 16 cities, from Jan. 19 to June 3. Of the 164 patients involved in the analysis, all of whom were symptomatic, 96 percent reported experiencing one of the three hallmark symptoms of COVID-19: [cough], fever, shortness of breath or chest pain. But those were far from the only symptoms reported."

Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds by Apoorva Mandavilli, New York Times, July 30, 2020. Study by Taylor Heald-Sargent, MD, PhD; William J. Muller, MD, PhD; Xiaotian Zheng, MD, PhD; Jason Rippe, JD; Ami B. Patel, MD, MPH; and Larry K. Kociolek, MD, MSCI, published online in JAMA Pediatrics, July 30, 2020, indicates: "Our analyses suggest children younger than 5 years with mild to moderate COVID-19 have high amounts of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in their nasopharynx compared with older children and adults."

China Points to Shrimp as Virus Carrier After Salmon Debacle from Bloomberg News, 10 July 2020. "The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a fresh statement on the matter, saying there's no evidence that Covid-19 is transmitted through food or food packaging. Ecuadorian shrimp exporter Santa Priscila, President and founder of Santiago Salem, said in a statement: 'They found one positive non-contagious test 'inside the wall of the container' as a result of 227,934 samples taken from the containers, that is 0.0000043%.' Chinese officials have also agreed with global experts that imported food poses a low risk of transmitting the virus."

118,187 Canada Cases from Worldometer 5 August 2020       4,973,568 US Cases from Worldometer 5 August 2020
See COVID-19 Coronavirus and World News: Google Web Albums
for statistics, charts, photos and videos from Jan. 29, 2020 to current

Column: I'm in Canada, where the COVID police are watching by Doyle McManus, Los Angeles Times, 5 Aug 2020. "Most Americans can't visit Canada these days. Because of the coronavirus threat, both countries have closed their borders to nonessential traffic. But my spouse is a dual U.S.-Canadian citizen, so we were allowed in --- as long as we agreed to quarantine ourselves for 14 days ... one of the public health officers who telephoned almost every day to check on us ... he also reminded me that the Ontario Provincial Police could show up at any time to make sure we weren't breaking the rules --- and that we could be fined the equivalent of U.S. $206 to $1,125. He wasn't kidding. In June, two Ontario men who violated quarantine after a visit to Minnesota were each fined about U.S. $850. Seven Americans who took an unauthorized hike in Banff National Park were each fined about U.S. $900.

It's one reason Canada is doing so much better in this pandemic than we are: Unlike Americans, they set tough rules --- and most obey them ... Last week, Trudeau unveiled a government-sponsored smartphone app that will notify users if someone they've been in contact with tests positive for COVID-19. More than a million Canadians downloaded it within three days. In the United States, the proposed use of contact-tracing apps has sparked furious debate over invasions of privacy."

Canada succeeded on coronavirus where America failed. Why? by Zack Beauchamp, Vox, 4 May 2020. "Canada beat the US on coronavirus because its political system works ... Per capita, the United States is currently seeing about twice as many confirmed coronavirus cases as Canada and about 30 percent more deaths. When you look at per capita cases and deaths across the course of the entire outbreak, the comparison looks even worse: the United States has over two times as many confirmed coronavirus cases as Canada and roughly twice as many deaths. Canadian testing rates have been consistently higher, especially during critical early stages for the two countries: In mid-March, the Canadian testing rate was roughly five times higher than the American one."

Ontario sends COVID-19 tests to California to cope with processing backlog by Rob Ferguson, Queen's Park Bureau, thestar.com (Toronto), 6 Oct. 2020.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic from World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks, Myth busters, Strategies, Plans and Operations (public health measures), Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for COVID-19, Your questions answered, Press briefings, and more.

Coronavirus at Smithfield pork plant: The untold story of America's biggest outbreak by Jessica Lussenhop, BBC News, 17 April 2020.

Coronavirus may never go away, World Health Organization warns from World Health Organization(WHO), BBC News, May 14, 2020. WHO emergencies director Dr Mike Ryan said he doesn't believe "anyone can predict when this disease will disappear". There are currently more than 100 potential vaccines in development - but Dr Ryan noted there are other illnesses, such as measles, that still haven't been eliminated despite there being vaccines for them.

COVID-19 Can Last for Several Months by Ed Yong, The Atlantic, June 4, 2020. "The disease's 'long-haulers' have endured relentless waves of debilitating symptoms - and disbelief from doctors and friends.

COVID-19 One-Stop Shop Toolkits: Videos, Social Media, PSAs, Print Resources, Checklists, FAQs, and Web Resources from National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases, 31 July 2020. Guidance for: People 15 to 21, Childcare Programs & Summer Camps, Youth Sports, K-12 Schools, Businesses & Workplaces (Reopening Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Public Spaces, Workplaces, Businesses, Schools, and Homes), Community & Faith-Based Organizations, General Public, Domestic Travelers, Shared & Congregate Housing, Parks & Recreational Facilities, Worker Safety & Support, Colleges & Universities, Older Adults & People at Higher Risk, People with Disabilities, Tribal Communities, Retirement Communities, Correctional and Detention Facilities, People Experiencing Homelessness.

COVID-19's Potential Impact on Neurological Function and Mental Health by Taneasha White, Fact checked by Emily Swaim, Verywell Mind, Dec 4, 2020. "Contracting COVID not only affects us physically but [also] affects our mental health in so many ways. The toll of stress and accompanying isolation of contracting COVID can be quite detrimental in and of itself, but COVID can also produce lingering effects due to inflammation of the brain and body that will have an adverse effect on cognitive and psychological functioning ... Anxiety, depression and isolation are all things we are all facing, but those who have survived COVID may experience these issues at an even higher rate ...' says Dr. Roseann Capanna-Hodge, Ed.D." Dr. Capanna-Hodge is a Connecticut Certified School Psychologist, a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC), a Certified Integrative Medicine Mental Health Provider (CMHIMP), and a Board Certified Neurofeedback Provider (BCN).

Diabetes and Coronavirus: What You Should Know by Elisabeth Almekinder, RN, BA, CDE, The Diabetes Council, 16 Apr. 2020.

Dr. John Whyte on Reopening Schools. Michael Stritch, CFA Chief Investment Officer, BMO Wealth Management - US, speaks with Dr. John Whyte, Chief Medical Officer of WebMD, about how school districts can approach their reopening plans, why communication with all key stakeholders is essential, and what's the best approach for moving forward while we wait for an effective, widely available vaccine. COVID-19 Insights, August 19, 2020.

Exit from coronavirus lockdowns - lessons from 6 countries by Bhaskar Chakravorti, Dean of Global Business, The Fletcher School, Tufts University, The Conversation, May 6, 2020. The good and the bad moves to fight COVID-19 in Germany, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan, Italy, and the United States. Comment from a former New Zealand prime minister, Helen Clark: "Economies can recover; the dead can't."

FACE MASKS - COVID-19: How much protection do face masks offer? By Mayo Clinic Staff, May 19, 2020. Face masks combined with other preventive measures, such as frequent hand-washing and social distancing, help slow the spread of the disease. How do the different types of masks work? Surgical masks, N95 Masks, Cloth Masks - How to wear a cloth face mask. Face mask precautions:
Don't put masks on anyone who has trouble breathing, or is unconscious or otherwise unable to remove the mask without help.
Don't put masks on children under 2 years of age.
Don't use face masks as a substitute for social distancing.

6 Ways to Sterilize Your N95 Mask for Endless Protection by Rich M., Ask a Prepper - How to, April 30, 2020.
"1. Using Time to Sterilize Your Masks: Allowing your masks to sit someplace safe (for 4 days) will allow the viruses to die, just by leaving them there.
2. Using Heat to Sterilize Your Masks: The French Scientist Louis Pasteur discovered in the mid-1800s that microscopic pathogens, specifically bacteria, die at 159°F. [Put mask in oven for 30 minutes at 160°F or 165°F will do the trick].
3. Using UV Light to Sterilize Your Masks: It has been discovered that ultraviolet light (UV light) between 200 and 400 nanometers is uniformly deadly to both bacteria and viruses. Three Different Chemicals You Can Use to Sterilize Your Masks: Chlorine bleach, Rubbing alcohol, and Hydrogen peroxide. Note: Using these 3 substances will remove the static charge in the microfibers in N95 facial masks and can reduce filtration efficiency well below its factory designed 95%."

The Best Way to Clean and Disinfect N95 & KN95 Masks by Paddy Robertson, Smart Air Filters, Jul 28, 2021. "...test data shows washing N95/KN95 masks with water reduces their filtration effectiveness ... tests found that dipping N95 masks in rubbing alcohol reduced particle capture by 37% ... Leaving masks out to dry should disinfect them from COVID-19, SARS, and influenza A in under 48 hours. 72 hours would be even more conservative ... Viruses survive longer at lower temperatures. For example, one study found that viruses died faster at 20C than 4C, and faster still at 40C. Studies have found that viruses survive much longer on wet materials than dry materials. Drying out a mask is more likely to kill the virus. One US hospital is telling its nurses to keep their masks in plastic bags, yet this would prevent the mask from drying and thus allow the virus to live longer."

The Best Way to Disinfect Masks Without Destroying Them by Paddy Robertson, Smart Air, March 26, 2020. Paddy is the CEO of Smart Air. He has a Masters degree in aeronautical engineering from Bristol University, UK having specialised in aerodynamics.

Considerations for Wearing Masks from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Aug. 7, 2020. Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19. Contents include:
Evidence for Effectiveness of Masks.
Who Should Wear a Mask? 1) General Public; 2) People who know or think they might have COVID-19; 3) Caregivers of people with COVID-19.
Who Should Not Wear a Mask? 1) Children younger than 2 years old; 2) Anyone who has trouble breathing; 3) Anyone who is unconscious, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to remove the mask without assistance.
Feasibility and Adaptations. Masks with Exhalation Valves or Vents. Face Shields. Surgical Masks.
Recent Studies on the Transmission of COVID-19.

Dry Heat Ovens Can Effectively Disinfect N95 Masks from Stony Brook University, April 9, 2020. Kenneth R. Shroyer, MD, PhD, Marvin Kuschner Professor and Chair of the Department of Pathology at the Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University and his team of researchers conducted pilot studies to determine if N95 masks were degraded after multiple rounds of dry heat treatment for 30 minutes at 100°C (212°F). "Fit-test scores were virtually identical between masks processed through four repeated cycles, suggesting that this approach could effectively increase the usable supply of N95 masks by a factor of five," said Dr. Shroyer. "It appears that the heat treatment can also be used to treat other types of surgical face masks."

How to clean, reuse or hack a coronavirus mask by Karina Zaiets, and Ramon Padilla, USA TODAY, Apr. 27, 2020. Tips to extend the life, sanitize, and make your mask more effective.

How to Put on and Remove a Face Mask from San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFCDCP), What is a face mask? What is a face mask used for? When should a face mask be worn. How to put on a face mask. How to remove a face mask.

How to Clean Wash & Disinfect Cloth, N95, or KN95 Face Masks by Nathan Frey, Vaniman Manufacturing Company, Apr 6, 2020. Keep in mind, most face masks are intended to be used once and replaced as needed. Due to the limited supply, the CDC has a list of recommended reuse methods. Masks should only be extended or reused by same wearer since asymptomatic wearers could potentially spread infection.
How to use the paper bag method for reusing N95 face masks.
How to wash N95 masks using vaporized hydrogen peroxide.
How to wash N95 masks & KN95 masks clean using dry heat.
How to clean wash N95 masks and KN95 masks using UV light.
How to wash N95 masks N95 masks using moist heat.
Methods that are NOT approved by the CDC for cleaning N95 masks or KN95 masks.
Can you wash a N95 mask or a KN95 mask?
N95 vs KN95: What is the difference between N95 and KN95 Face Masks?

Is Washing Masks Effective After Virus Exposure? Can I Wash My Mask? By Paddy Robertson, Smart Air, March 18, 2020. The Test: Washing Masks with Soap & Water. Testing Mask Filtration Effectiveness. Washing the mask was much worse than natural 'aging.' Washing decreased particle capture by 21%. Washing masks is harmful because most companies use a mat of very thin fibers to make N95 and other pollution masks. After dipping N95 masks in rubbing alcohol, researchers found that masks captured 37% less particulate.

N95 Respirator Cleaning and Reuse Methods Proposed by the Inventor of the N95 Mask Material by Pascal S.C. Juang, MD, and Peter Tsai, PhD, Emerg Med. 2020 May; 58(5): 817–820, Published online Apr 16, 2020. "N95 masks are made in several layers. The middle filtering layers are made of polypropylene fibers with an embedded electrostatic charge. FE is achieved by both the mechanical structure of the polypropylene filter layer and the electrostatic charge. The electrostatic charge can augment the mechanical filtering efficiency by as much as 10 to 20 times."
N95 Masks Can be Rotated, 1 Mask Every 3 - 4 Days
N95 Masks Can be Heated at 70°C (158°F) for 60 Min.

The Right Way to Clean Cloth Face Masks and Coverings During the Coronavirus Outbreak by Amanda Garrity, Good Housekeeping, Sep 29, 2020. A cleaning expert weighs in on the CDC's guidelines, including how often you should wash fabric masks.

Sanitizing Masks With Alcohol Degrades Performance by Thomas Talhelm, Smart Air, April 23, 2020.

The Ultimate Guide to Homemade Face Masks for Coronavirus by Paddy Robertson. Smart Air, April 21, 2020. "For Ebola-sized particles, the N95 mask, surgical mask, and HEPA filter performed best, capturing over 99% of particles 1.0 micron and above. Next up, the HERO coffee filter captured 98%. Paper towels, canvas, denim, and the cotton bed sheet also captured more than 90% ... The four worst-scoring materials were the wool scarf (100% Cashmere), polyester neck warmer (100% Microfiber Polyester), cotton bandana (100% Cotton) and light scarf (100% Ramie)."

Effectiveness-of-DIY-Mask-Materials-at-Capturing-1.0-Micron-Particles-929x1024.jpg image sosurce: Smart Air https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/best-diy-coronavirus-homemade-mask-material-covid/
Image source: Smart Air

Global rally against COVID-19 safety measures comes to Parliament Hill by Raisa Patel, David Thurton, CBC News, Aug 29, 2020. Online misinformation about pandemic safety measures thriving, experts say. "In Berlin, 38,000 people protested public safety restrictions at an event that was disbanded by police after demonstrators failed to keep their distance and wear masks as instructed.

Elsewhere in Europe, about 200 anti-mask activists held a similar rally in Paris, while thousands of demonstrators gathered in London's Trafalgar Square calling the coronavirus a hoax and demanding an end to restrictions ... 'We are not anti-mask at all, we are pro-liberty,' said Kelly Anne Wolfe, the executive director of The Line Canada ...

Aengus Bridgman, a Montreal-based researcher with the Media Ecosystem Observatory, said, 'There are concerns when we have social media platforms that are, through negligence, allowing the spread of misinformation that...leads to increased infection rates, increased deaths, and increases the duration of the pandemic.'"

The History of Influenza Pandemics by the Numbers from CUSABIO Technology. "When you see the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting that as of April 24, 2021, 'there have been 145,216,414 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 3,079,390 deaths, reported to WHO,' it's easy to think that the world has never seen anything like this. However, that assessment would be wrong. Covid-19 represents the fifth influenza pandemic since 1900."

How Can We Prevent the Next Pandemic? by Paul Laudicina, Contributor, Leadership Strategy, Forbes, April 24, 2020. "Fact is, the global community has had multiple recent dress rehearsals for the COVID-19 contagion ... AIDS, SARS, H1N1, and Ebola ... failure to think past COVID-19 would condemn us to the same state of ill-preparedness when the next global health threat materializes.

... history offers critical guidance. In past contagions, going back to plague-stricken Italy 600 years ago, elites fanned the xenophobic impulses of terrified populations and scapegoated vulnerable social groups as the source of deadly epidemics. One only need look at how medieval era Jews were subjected to violence when falsely accused of causing plague by poisoning wells ...

We have witnessed acts of discrimination and violence against Asians and also growing opposition to the kind of global cooperation critical to stemming both the existing crisis and to short-circuiting the next contagion. The US decision to withhold funding from the World Health Organization is Exhibit A in such self-destructive behavior. Refusal to share data on critical infection incidence and treatment outcomes, commandeering of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals, alleged acts of medical equipment piracy, and unwillingness to support coordinated global health policy initiatives all create a toxic free-for-all mindset ...

Scientists have already identified approximately 30,000 coronaviruses lurking out there that have not yet crossed from animals to humans. This process of 'zoonosis' transforms these organisms from 'interesting' to 'deadly.' And science also warns us that global climate change and man's encroachment on nature increases our exposure to new diseases. Already two-thirds of all human disease is animal-transmitted ... Dr. Jennifer Doudna, the pioneering co-discoverer of a revolutionary gene editing process (CRISPR-Cas9) holding great promise for conquering this virus and many other currently incurable diseases ... spoke passionately about how global cooperation is a precondition of finding a way to tame COVID-19 and others like it in the future."

Statista Infographic Google image source from https://www.statista.com/chart/21170/coronavirus-death-rate-worldwide/ COVID-19 - COVID-19 Deaths Per 100,000 Inhabitants: A Comparison by Niall McCarthy, Jun 23, 2020.
Image source: Statista from Johns Hopkins University

How does mortality differ across countries? Maps and Trends: Mortality Analysis from Johns Hopkins University, 11 July 2020. One of the most important ways to measure the burden of COVID-19 is mortality. Countries throughout the world have reported very different case fatality ratios - the number of deaths divided by the number of confirmed cases. (Note: This webpage will not load in old Internet Explorer browser).

● See also: Coronavirus (COVID-19) deaths worldwide per one million population as of July 1, 2020, by country by Raynor de Best, Jul 1, 2020.

How to coronavirus-proof your home by Scottie Andrew, CNN, March 2020.

How to Hug During a Pandemic by Tara Parker-Pope, New York Times, June 4, 2020. Includes illustrations by Eleni Kalorkoti. Safest thing is to avoid hugs. But if you need a hug, take precautions. Wear a mask. Hug outdoors. Try to avoid touching the other person's body or clothes with your face and your mask. Don't hug someone who is coughing or has other symptoms. Some hugs are riskier than others. Point your faces in opposite directions. Don't talk or cough while you're hugging. And do it quickly. Approach each other and briefly embrace. When you are done, don't linger. Back away quickly so you don't breathe into each other's faces. Wash your hands afterward.

Try not to cry. Tears and runny noses increase risk for coming into contact with more fluids that contain the virus. DON'T hug face-to-face. DON'T hug cheeks together, facing the same direction. DO hug facing opposite directions. DO let children hug you around the knees or waist. DO kiss your grandchild on the back of the head.

How to Prevent the Next Pandemic by Seth Berkley, Global Health, Aspen Institute, June 18, 2018. Seth Berkley is CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

Humanity and Compassion During the Coronavirus. Community Discussions. By Katie Holmes, freelance writer and editor, OutwitTrade, April 7, 2020. What's the best example you've seen of someone being compassionate and lending a helping hand during this pandemic?

* The Infection That's Silently Killing Coronavirus Patients by Dr. Richard Levitan, Opinion, New York Times, April 20, 2020. Dr. Levitan is an emergency doctor. "This is what I learned during 10 days of treating Covid pneumonia at Bellevue Hospital." "He observed many patients with pneumonia and hypoxia (low oxygen levels in blood) who did not have typical symptoms of breathing problems such as chest discomfort or painful breathing. Levitan suggested in a New York Times op-ed that the widespread use of pulse oximeters could lead to earlier detection of serious breathing complications, and to better outcomes for patients with these complications." ~ Wikipedia.

I toured this exhibit on epidemics before the coronavirus pandemic shut it down by Joshua Barajas, PBS NewsHour, March 18, 2020. Exhibit entitled "Outbreak: Epidemics in a Connected World."

Is going maskless a rejection of science? A sign of freedom? Or none of the above? What does it mean to not wear one? By Sara Israelsen-Hartley@saraisraelsen, Deseret News, May 3, 2020.

Jack Ma: The billionaire trying to stop coronavirus (and fix China's reputation) by Celia Hatton, BBC News, April 26, 2020. Jack Ma "opened his own Twitter account last month, in the middle of the Covid-19 outbreak. So far, every one of his posts has been devoted to his unrivalled campaign to deliver medical supplies to almost every country around the world. 'One world, one fight!' Jack Ma enthused in one of his first messages. 'Together, we can do this!' he cheered in another. So far ... Over 150 countries have received donations from Jack Ma, including about 120.4 million face masks, 4,105,000 testing kits, 3,704 ventilators. Source: Alizila."

Law Enforcement Information on COVID-19 from the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). With more than 31,000 members in over 165 countries, the IACP is a recognized leader in global policing, committed to advancing safer communities through thoughtful, progressive police leadership. This webpage is dedicated to aiding law enforcement in learning more about COVID-19 and how agencies can prepare. Last update: Jan. 5, 2021. IACP COVID-19 Resources include: General & Comprehensive Resources; Organizational Preparedness; Alternatives to Law Enforcement Procedure; Special Population Concerns; Officer Health, Safety & Wellness; Compilation of COVID-19 Library Resources; COVID-19 Response Discussion Group; Coronavirus Funding; Additional COVID-19 Resources; Non-COVID-19 Specific IACP Resources.

Life After Covid-19 by Soulaima Gourani, Contributor, Leadership Strategy, Forbes, 29 May 2020.

Life After COVID-19: The Road to Recovery by Neha Pathak, MD, May 13, 2020.

Loss of Taste and Smell as COVID-19 Symptom Should Be Screening Measure for Virus Across the World by Kashmira Gander, Newsweek, April 14, 2020.

Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations. Scientific brief from World Health Organiation (WHO).

New Covid-19 variant - key questions answered by Taz Ali, PA, Yahoo! News, Dec. 21, 2020. "Scientists have found the new variant of Covid-19 spreads more rapidly, leading to harsher restrictions in some parts of England less than a week before Christmas. There is currently no evidence that the new strain causes higher mortality rates or affects vaccines and treatments, although some data shows it infects more children."
Covid: Nations impose UK travel bans over new variant from BBC News, Dec. 20, 2020.
New coronavirus variant: What do we know? By James Gallagher, Health and science correspondent, BBC News, Dec. 20, 2020. "The new variant was first detected in September. In November it made up around a quarter of cases in London. This reached nearly two-thirds of cases in mid-December."

New symptoms linked to COVID virus revealed by major study of 1 million people in England by James Morris, Senior news reporter, Yahoo News UK, Feb. 10, 2021. "A study of more than 1 million people in England has revealed chills, loss of appetite, headaches and muscle aches have been reported as coronavirus symptoms.
Researchers said on Wednesday it potentially means thousands of COVID cases are not being picked up by the testing system, because these symptoms don't match the ones currently set out by the NHS to qualify for a test.
Those three 'classic' symptoms are a high temperature, a new continuous cough, and a loss or change to sense of smell or taste."

Obesity a driving factor in COVID-19 deaths, global report finds from LONDON (Reuters), Mar. 4, 2021. "The majority of global COVID-19 deaths have been in countries where many people are obese, with coronavirus fatality rates 10 times higher in nations where at least 50% of adults are overweight, a global study found on Thursday. The report, which described a 'dramatic' correlation between countries' COVID-19 death and obesity rates, found that 90% or 2.2 million of the 2.5 million deaths from the pandemic disease so far were in countries with high levels of obesity ... Strikingly, ... there is no example of a country where people are generally not overweight or obese having high COVID-19 death rates."

Researchers create air filter that can kill coronavirus by Cheryl Santa Maria, The Weather Network, 14 July 2020. "A team of researchers has developed an air filter that can 'trap' coronavirus and kill it instantly, according to a statement from the University of Houston (UH). A paper: Catching and killing of airborne SARS-CoV-2 to control spread of COVID-19 by a heated air disinfection system ... has been published in Materials Today Physics. In lab tests, the filters killed 99.8 per cent of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in a single pass through the filter. It also killed 99.9 per cent of anthrax spores tested. The technology is made from commercially-available nickel foam heated to 200 degrees Celsius. 'This filter could be useful in airports and in airplanes, in office buildings, schools and cruise ships to stop the spread of COVID-19,' said Zhifeng Ren, MD, director of the Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH."

Scientists call for caution and calm over Covid variant detected in India by Samuel Lovett, Science Correspondent, @samueljlovett, The Independent, Apr. 21, 2021. "Known as B1617, the variant is currently being investigated by health officials in the UK, where a total of 77 cases have been detected to date ...

Public Health England indicated on Sunday that a few cases are linked to community transmission - but the vast majority of cases have been identified in people who travelled to the UK. Officials are now further assessing B1617 to determine whether it should be identified as a 'variant of concern' - a classification that is shared by the South African, Kent and Manaus variants. 'This variant has a couple of mutations that are among those that we think are important that should be watched carefully, but they're actually probably not at the very kind of top tier of mutations, for example in the B117 - or Kent variant - or the South African variant, that generate the most concern,' Dr Barrett said ... Giridhara Babu, a professor of epidemiology at the Public Health Foundation of India, said there was 'no evidence' to suggest B1617 was more deadly than other variants in circulation in the country.

Second COVID-19 Wave Forces New Travel Curbs Around the Globe by Stephen Coates and Peter Graff, Sydney/London (Reuters), July 27, 2020. "Nations in Asia imposed new restrictions on Monday [July 27, 2020], while an abrupt British quarantine on travellers from Spain threw Europe's summer reopening into disarray, as the world confronted the prospect of a second wave of COVID-19 infections ... Surges were reported in several countries that previously appeared to have the virus under control."

Sleep, Work, and COVID-19: In-Depth Study by Keith Cushner, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sahil Chopra, Tuck.com, October 29, 2020. How COVID-19 has changed our sleep. People are experiencing worse sleep, and getting less of it, since the Coronavirus outbreak.

Steroid drug [dexamethasone] hailed as "breakthrough" in COVID-19 as trial shows it saves lives by Kate Kelland and Alistair Smout, Reuters, June 16, 2020.

Sunlight destroys virus quickly, new govt. tests find, but experts say pandemic could last through summer by Jana Winter and Sharon Weinberger, Yahoo News, April 17, 2020.

A Tale of Two Cities: How Hong Kong Has Controlled its Coronavirus Outbreak, While New York City Scrambles by Jerri-Lynn Scofield, Naked Capitalism, March 9, 2020.

Three permanent side-effects of COVID-19 that are pretty creepy by Khristina Jacob, Yahoo Lifestyle, 29 Oct. 2020. "According to researchers, long-haulers is the name given to those who have had the COVID-19 illness and lived to tell the tale, but with a caveat. They say, many don't really get better, but are scarred for life with different kinds of persistent damages or side-effects, which could possibly be life-long, hence the term, long-haulers.
1. Some patients with COVID-19 have persistent skin-related symptoms long after their initial infection has cleared.
2. Coronavirus may cause sudden permanent hearing loss in some patients.
3. An analysis of more than 80 studies reporting complications experienced by COVID-19 patients has revealed that about one-third of them have abnormalities in the frontal lobe of the brain."

Tips for Small Business Survival During COVID-19 by Jennifer D'Agostino, Intuit QuickBooks Small Business Centre. "From starting a crowdfunding page to adjusting your business strategy to boost revenue, there are many actions to take to help your small business cope with any financial strain."

US buys up almost entire world supply of coronavirus drug Remdesivir by Sean Morrison, Evening Standard, 1 July 2020. "The US has effectively secured the entire global supply of one of only two drugs proven to treat coronavirus. Remdesivir, which was used to treat Ebola, is produced almost exclusively by US pharmaceutical giant Gilead ... The US Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) has announced it has bought up more than 500,000 doses of the drug. The HSS suggested that the move means the country has secured the entire global supply of the drug for July, and 90 per cent of stocks available for August and September ... Low and middle-income countries can produce generic versions of the drug, but they are not able to sell them to Europe because Gilead has a patent for it."

The virus that causes COVID-19 could be even more contagious than previously thought, a new study finds by Stuart Thomson, National Post, April 13, 2020.

Vitamin D Determines Severity in COVID-19: Researchers Urge Government to Change Advice by Trinity College Dublin, May 13, 2020. The correlation between low vitamin D levels and death from COVID-19 is statistically significant.

What Is Herd Immunity and Could It Help Prevent COVID-19? By Noreen Iftikhar, MD, Medically reviewed by Stacy Sampson, DO, Healthline, April 2, 2020. "Herd immunity happens when so many people in a community become immune to an infectious disease that it stops the disease from spreading ... in most cases, 80 to 95 percent of the population must be immune to the disease to stop its spread. For example, 19 out of every 20 people must have the measles vaccination for herd immunity to go into effect and stop the disease ... For most healthy people, herd immunity isn't a good alternative to getting vaccinated."

Which vaccine should you get? Whichever one you can. By Ashish K. Jha, a physician, health policy researcher and the dean of the Brown University School of Public Health, PostEverything, Perspective, Washington Post, 16 Feb. 2021. "Though the Johnson & Johnson vaccine's clinical trials might appear to show lower effectiveness than those of the Pfizer and Moderna shots, the answer to whether anyone should turn down one vaccine for another is clear: No. If you are able to get a vaccine - any vaccine - get it. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine, if it's authorized for use, is not a lesser vaccine for lesser people. It is a safe, effective and powerful tool in our fight to end this pandemic, reduce suffering and save lives."

4. COVID-19 in the United States

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United States from Wikipedia.

* USA - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

The Spread of COVID-19 Coronavirus in the United States [Infographic] with statistics starting Jan. 22, 2020 and ending April 4, 2020, by Kevin Anderton, Science, from Forbes, 3 Apr. 2020. This animation shows the number of confirmed cases in the United States by date and state. Info provided by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University.

80 percent of Texas inmates who died of COVID-19 had not been convicted of a crime: report by Celine Castronuovo, MSN News, Nov. 13, 2020. "Based on Texas county jail populations data, researchers at the University of Texas at Austin found that of those who died from COVID-19 in a Texas county jail, 11 out of 14, or nearly 80 percent, had not received a conviction ... Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) communications director Jeremy Desel added, 'To date, more than 65,000 employee and 219,000 inmate tests have been carried out. This is far more than any other correctional system in the country.' As of Thursday [Nov. 12, 2020], the Texas Department of Health and Human Services has recorded a total of nearly 994,000 confirmed coronavirus cases, with more than 19,000 deaths."

As the U.S. hits 200,000 COVID-19 deaths, Trump tells an Ohio rally the coronavirus 'affects virtually nobody' by Peter Weber, The Week, Yahoo! News, 22 Sep. 2020. "The U.S. passed yet another 'grim milestone' in its COVID-19 pandemic Monday [21 Sep. 2020] night, Reuters notes, with at least 200,000 Americans dead from the new coronavirus and an average of nearly 1,000 more dying each day. As 'the country blew past estimate after estimate' of COVID-19 deaths, Politico's pandemic newsletter said Monday night, 'the term 'grim milestone' in headlines became so routine that we banned it.'

... The U.S., with about 4 percent of the world's population, has 20 percent of its recorded COVID-19 deaths. At a rally in Dayton, Ohio, on Monday night, President Trump assured his admirers the virus isn't really that bad, noting that it mostly kills 'elderly people' and people with 'other problems,' adding, 'It affects virtually nobody.'"

"Anybody else lose a 'nobody'?": Zach Braff invites people to share tributes to loved ones who died of COVID-19 by Kerry Justich, Yahoo Life, 23 Sep. 2020. "... now people are responding to Braff's tweet with their own personal stories of those who they lost to the virus, putting names to the 'nobodies' that died. Trump's statement was made during a rally in Vandalia, Ohio, as the nation was hitting the grim milestone of 200,000 deaths by COVID. 'It affects elderly people, elderly people with heart problems and other problems,' he said. 'It affects virtually nobody. It's an amazing thing.'"

Bing COVID-19 Tracker: Daily U.S. Cases Top 100,000 for First Time by Douglas A. McIntyre. 24/7 Wall St., 24 Oct. 2020. "... new cases in the U.S. rose by 105,411 during the last day ... Several experts have warned confirmed case counts could rise into the six digits. Two months ago, the typical daily increase hovered around 30,000. The 105,411 takes the total U.S. confirmed cases to 8,603,771. In the last day, U.S. deaths rose 1,085 to 227,399. In a new article in 'Nature Medicine', the IHME (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) COVID-19 Forecasting Team said that deaths could reach 511,373 by 28 February 2021. If mask-wearing rates rise from current nationwide levels to use by 100% of the population, the number could be reduced by as much as 129,574."

Birthday party leaves 18 in Texas family with coronavirus from Associated Press, 25 June 2020. Carrollton, Texas - "Ron Barbosa, who ... refused to attend the May 30 [surprise birthday] party for his daughter-in-law because of safety concerns amid the COVID-19 pandemic, said those hospitalized included his parents, both in their 80′s, and his sister, who is also battling breast cancer."

BREAKING: Donald Trump and Melania test positive for coronavirus. YouTube video, 5:19 min. Published by Sky News, 1 Oct. 2020.

President Trump and Melania Trump test positive for Covid-19. Video, 10:14 min. Published by CNN, 2 Oct. 2020. "Tonight, @FLOTUS [First Lady of the United States] and I tested positive for COVID-19. We will begin our quarantine and recovery process immediately. We will get through this TOGETHER!" Trump tweeted shortly before 1 am Friday [2 Oct. 2020]. In a memo issued to reporters around 1 a.m. ET, the President's physician, Navy Commander Dr. Sean Conley, wrote he received confirmation of the positive tests on Thursday evening. "The President and First Lady are both well at this time, and they plan to remain at home within the White House during their convalescence," Conley wrote.

Trump Announces He and First Lady Have Tested Positive for COVID-19 | NBC News YouTube video, 2:06 min. Published by NBC News, 2 Oct. 2020.

Coronavirus Updates: US Records Over 67,000 New Cases in a Single Day by Morgan Winsor, ABC News, July 31, 2020. More than 67,600 new cases of COVID-19 were identified in the United States on Thursday [July 30, 2020], according to a count kept by Johns Hopkins University.

Coronavirus: Trump gives WHO ultimatum over Covid-19 handling. On Monday, May 18, 2020, "US President Donald Trump sent a letter to the head of the World Health Organization (WHO) threatening to pull US funding permanently over Covid-19. On April 14, 2020, Trump had halted funding to WHO. This letter outlines a 30-day deadline for WHO to commit to "substantive improvements" [improvements not specified] or risk losing millions and US membership altogether.

Addressed to WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, it criticises stages of the body's response since December 2019 ... Earlier, Mr Trump called the UN's health body a 'puppet of China'. The president, who faces re-election this year and has himself been criticised for his handling of the pandemic, has blamed China for trying to cover up the outbreak and has accused the WHO of failing to hold Beijing to account. China has repeatedly denied the allegations, arguing the country had released information 'in an open, transparent, responsible and timely manner'".

[Note: 15 times Trump praised China as coronavirus was spreading across the globe by Myah Ward, Politico, April 15, 2020. "Trump touted China's government for its transparency and hard work to defeat the coronavirus that causes the illness."]

President Donald Trump's 4-page letter to World Health Organization (WHO), May 18, 2020:

Trump's letter to WHO 18 May 2020, page 1 Trump's letter to WHO 18 May 2020, page 2 Trump's letter to WHO 18 May 2020, page 3 Trump's letter to WHO 18 May 2020, page 4

Donald Trump threatens to permanently pull $400M in WHO funding from the US unless it makes 'major substantive improvements within 30 days' as China offers $2bn virus aid by Lauren Fruen, Dailymail.com, and WIRES, May 19, 2020.

Top medical journal blasts Trump for factual error in letter threatening WHO cutoff by Caitlin Oprysko, Politico, May 19, 2020. "This statement is factually incorrect," the Lancet said.

Member states back WHO after renewed Donald Trump attack from The Guardian, May 19, 2020. Member states have backed a resolution strongly supportive of the World Health Organization, after Donald Trump issued a fresh broadside against the UN body, giving it 30 days to make unspecified reforms or lose out on US funding.

Donald Trump's WHO Letter About China Explained: An Annotated Timeline by Shane Croucher and David Brennan, Newsweek, May 20, 2020.

Coronavirus in the US: State-by-state breakdown.

Donald Trump suggested 'injecting disinfectant' as a treatment for coronavirus - here's why it's extremely dangerous by Stephanie Rendall, The Scotsman, April 24, 2020.

Coronavirus: Trump disinfectant claims cause 100 hospital admissions published by English AS.com, April 25, 2020.

Arizona man dies after attempting to take Trump coronavirus 'cure' from The Guardian, March 24, 2020. "A Phoenix-area man has died and his wife was in critical condition after the couple took chloroquine phosphate, an additive used to clean fish tanks that is also found in an anti-malaria medication touted by Donald Trump as a treatment for Covid-19. Banner Health said on Monday the couple in their 60s got sick within half an hour of ingesting the additive. The man could not be resuscitated at hospital but the woman was able to throw up much of the chemical."

Two men in Georgia and one man in Kansas drank liquid cleaning products 'to ward off COVID-19' after Trump suggested injecting disinfectant into the lungs to combat the virus by Megan Sheets, Dailymail.co.uk, April 28, 2020.

Trump recklessly suggests injecting disinfectant to kill coronavirus. Why he's wrong by Jackson Ryan, CNET, April 25, 2020. Disinfectants, like bleach and isopropyl alcohol, are toxic and should not be consumed, ingested or injected to fight COVID-19.

Trump says he is taking hydroxychloroquine as hedge against virus by Jeff Mason and Steve Holland, Reuters, 18 May 2020. WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. President Donald Trump said on Monday [May 18, 2020] that he is taking hydroxychloroquine, a malaria drug that he has touted despite medical warnings about its use, as a preventive medicine against the coronavirus. [Not clear what dosage or how often Trump is taking hydroxychloroquine, or is he even telling the truth?]

COVID-19 shines light on 'digital divide' across the US by Marguerite Reardon, CNET, 18 Mar. 2020. "From rural areas where broadband doesn't exist to poor areas where it's unaffordable, millions go without internet access just when they need it most ... This lack of connectivity is a huge problem, especially for the millions of students whose schools are moving online for the next few weeks or even months. It could also reduce the number of people who could benefit from telehealth solutions at a time when the nation's health care facilities will likely be strained and at capacity ... On Urban Digital Divide: The main barrier is what David Cohen (former Comcast executive vice president) said is a 'complex mix of digital literacy, skills, fear and a lack of perceived need or interest in having the internet at home." The second and third barriers include the lack of an internet capable computer and the cost of a monthly home internet subscription.'"

COVID-19 Will Rage 'Like a Forest Fire' in Unprepared America, Top Doc Warns by Mary Papenfuss, HuffPost, 22 June 2020. "America's leadership is unfocused, said Dr. Michael Osterholm, unlike other parts of the world that remain vigilant against the pandemic. The spread of COVID-19 is 'like a forest fire,' warned Osterholm, the director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota. 'I think that wherever there is wood to burn, this fire is going to burn. And right now we have a lot of susceptible people ... I think we're going to just see one very, very difficult forest fire of cases.'

President Donald Trump said at his campaign rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, on Saturday that he told his 'people' to reduce testing in order to suppress reports of increased cases. 'When you do testing to that extent, you're going to find ... more cases,' Trump explained. 'So I said to my people, Slow the testing down, please.'"

'The COVID virus is also attending': Expert explains how Maine wedding led to over 175 COVID-19 cases, 7 deaths by Abby Haglage, Yahoo Life, 16 Sep. 2020. "Aug. 7 wedding in Millinocket ... More than 65 people reportedly attended the wedding ceremony at a Baptist church in York County, followed by a reception at the nearby Big Moose Inn. The event broke the Maine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's limit for indoor gatherings, which had been capped at 50."

Donald Trump's Conspiracy Theories CNN Special Report, July 17, 2020. CNN's Fareed Zakaria Examines Donald Trump's Conspiracy Theories - July 20 at 9 pm ET and PT. "Donald Trump uses false conspiracy theories to damage perceived enemies, explain away poor polling numbers, or to cover up his own misdoings."

Trump's China Coronavirus Conspiracy Is Infiltrating Intelligence Agencies by Caleb Ecarma, Vanity Fair, April 30, 2020. The Trump administration is reportedly pressuring U.S. spy agencies to find evidence that COVID-19 originated in a Chinese biolab, a theory being fanned by Republicans and conservative hosts.

Trump supporters on Twitter spread coronavirus conspiracy about China: research June 7, 2020. "There is a close connection between the disinformation campaigns initiated on Twitter during the coronavirus pandemic and pro-Trump and QAnon affiliations, according to a study conducted by the Australia Institute, an independent public policy think tank based in Canberra.

The report, 'Like a virus: The coordinated spread of coronavirus disinformation,' found that about 30 clusters of Twitter accounts, which are affiliated with supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump, the Republican Party or the conspiracy theory QAnon, spread rumors that the coronavirus was a bioweapon created in China.

QAnon is a far-right conspiracy theory detailing an alleged plot by the 'deep state' against Trump and his supporters.

Rumors about various governments created the coronavirus as part of military experiments first started on social media in early February, which has been debunked by the World Health Organization and multiple fact-checking groups. The U.S. intelligence and health officials have likewise rejected the idea that the pathogen was man-made or genetically modified.

As of late March, the Australian researchers monitored that the conspiracy theory labeling the coronavirus Chinese bioweapon had been shared on Twitter within certain clusters for almost 900 times. Those online messages were then retweeted 18,500 times, collectively garnering as many as five million views of the rumor across Twitter."

Frightening US conspiracy theorists attack masks by Rong Xiaoqing, Global Times, May 14, 2020. "The free will of the free-willed people in the US is so strong that it easily overwhelmed government directives ...

And for the Costco market chain, which started requiring customers to wear masks on May 4, another crisis erupted. Its healthcare measures led to a nationwide boycott from belligerent customers. 'You are an American corporation with an obligation to support our American values, dictating face mask for your workers is one thing but forcing this on your loyal members who paid for a membership is a complete abuse of power,' said one customer on Twitter."

Trump is back to going big on coronavirus conspiracy theories by Amber Phillips, Washington Post, July 29, 2020. "To give such a conspiracy-theory-laden briefing from the podium of the White House, and then wonder why he's not trusted by Americans, only underscores that Trump is deep in denial on the virus, at the same time he's clearly worried about its impact on his reelection chances."

Donald Trump's Debt to China by John Cassidy, New Yorker, April 25, 2020.

How Much Money Does Donald Trump Owe China? by Susan Wright, Red State, Aug 20, 2016.

Donald Trump's Next Bankruptcy? Asian Central Banks with $3 Trillion of Exposure by William Pesek, Contributor to Forbes Editors' Picks, April 15, 2020.

US Debt to China, How Much, Reasons Why, and What If China Sells by Kimberly Amadeo, Reviewed by Somer G. Anderson, The Balance, April 19, 2020. Why China Is America's Biggest Banker. "The U.S. debt to China was $1.09 trillion through February 2020. That's more than 15% of the $7.06 trillion in Treasury bills, notes, and bonds held by foreign countries. The rest of the $24 trillion national debt is owned either by the American people or by the U.S. government itself. China has the second-greatest amount of U.S. debt held by a foreign country. Japan tops the list owning $1.27 trillion ...

China's position as America's largest banker gives it some political leverage. It is responsible for low interest rates and cheap consumer goods. If it called in its debt, U.S. interest rates and prices would rise, slowing U.S economic growth."

What Happens to China if the U.S. Defaults on Its Debt? Answer from Paul Solman, Science, Dec 8, 2011. "If we [United States] went into default, China would have to accept less money on its loans to the U.S. - i.e., the U.S. Treasuries it holds. If we repudiated - that is to say, renounced our debts, ... China would own nothing but a lot of worthless U.S. IOUs."

Trump says evidence ties China lab to virus, threatens tariffs by Sebastian Smith, with AFP bureaus, Yahoo! News, 30 Apr. 2020.

U.S. officials crafting retaliatory actions against China over coronavirus as President Trump fumes by Jeff Stein, Carol D. Leonnig, Josh Dawsey and Gerry Shih, Washington Post, April 30, 2020. "The president has in recent days told aides and others that China has to pay for the outbreak and publicly floated demanding billions in compensation ... In private, Trump and aides have discussed stripping China of its 'sovereign immunity,' aiming to enable the U.S. government or victims to sue China for damages.

George Sorial ... is involved in a class-action lawsuit against China ... Legal experts say an attempt to limit China's sovereign immunity would be extremely difficult to accomplish and may require congressional legislation.

Some administration officials have also discussed having the United States cancel part of its debt obligations to China ... Asked about this ... Trump said canceling interest payments to China could undermine the 'sanctity of the dollar,' but ... there were other ways to levy extreme penalties on China, such as raising $1 trillion by imposing tariffs on Chinese imports."

Breakingviews - America could actually shirk its debts to China by John Foley, Reuters, May 3, 2020.

How to Make China Pay for COVID-19 by John Yoo, and Robert J. Delahunty, Hoover Institution, April 26, 2020. "The more we learn about the origins of the coronavirus, the more compelling the case against China grows ... The United States and other nations must hold China accountable not because of anger - though that sentiment is entirely justified - nor a desire for retribution. The world must make China pay in order to create incentives that will force it to improve its behavior. That may well demand measures that will force China to experience the full costs of its recklessness."

Why we can't 'cancel' U.S. debt held by China by Ben White and Aubree Eliza Weaver, Politico, May 1, 2020. "Any move to 'cancel' debt held by China - i.e. default on it - would destroy the full faith and credit of the U.S., send U.S. interest rates soaring and could ignite a global financial catastrophe."

The U.S. has thrown more than $6 trillion at the coronavirus crisis. That number could grow by Andrew Van Dam, Washington Pose, April 15, 2020.

How Trump may try to get revenge on China for COVID-19: Stephen Moore by Brian Sozzi, Editor-at-Large, Yahoo Finance, July 14, 2020. Stephen Moore is the Economic Adviser to President Trump. "Trump has been a vocal critic of China's role in the COVID-19 pandemic, whose epicenter has been traced to Wuhan. He frequently refers to COVID-19 as the 'China Virus' on the campaign trail and in interviews. 'That potentially be in the hundreds of billions of dollars range. Of course, how do i get China to pay and make those payments? Do you impose sanctions or tariffs, and there has been some talk. And if it was $500 billion or $2 trillion, and we'll erase the debt and call it even. China does have to be reprimanded,' Moore explained."

Idaho lieutenant gov. appears in video slamming virus rules, whether 'a pandemic may or may not be occurring' by Teo Armus, Reporter on the Morning Mix team, Washington Post, 30 Oct. 2020. "The video shows Idaho Lt. Gov. Janice McGeachin (R) sitting in the driver's seat of a pickup truck ... 'We recognize that all of us are by nature, free and equal, and have certain inalienable rights,' she says, grabbing a gun and placing it on top of the Bible ... 'Among which are enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting property and pursuing happiness and securing safety.'"

Krispy Kreme: 22% of the US is vaccinated, but 100% can get free doughnuts by Eli Blumenthal, CNET COVID-19, Apr. 12, 2021.

A Missouri woman didn't want a COVID-19 vaccine for fear of side effects. She caught the Delta variant and died. by Sophia Ankel, Insider, 4 July 2021. "A Missouri woman who refused to get a COVID-19 vaccine because she was afraid of its side effects died in hospital last month after contracting the Delta variant, her mother told local news outlets. Tricia Jones, a 45-year-old mother of two from Kansas City, died on June 9 after a month in hospital on a ventilator."

Most New York Coronavirus Cases Came From Europe, Genomes Show Travelers seeded multiple cases starting as early as mid-February, genomes show by Carl Zimmer, New York Times, April 8, 2020. New research indicates that the coronavirus began to circulate in the New York area by mid-February, weeks before the first confirmed case, and that travelers brought in the virus mainly from Europe, not Asia.

My Whole Household Has COVID-19 by Deborah Copaken, The Atlantic, March 27, 2020. Description of first-hand experience of having contracted COVID-19. What it feels like having high fever, cough, dry mouth, fatigue, rapid heart beat.

Why is the COVID-19 fatality rate so high in the US compared to China? Answer from James McInnes, Quora, March 17, 2020.

A New Statistic Reveals Why America's COVID-19 Numbers Are Flat by Robinson Meyer and Alexis C. Madrigal, The Atlantic, April 16, 2020. Article explains how the coronavirus has spread through the United States. "New York City's positivity rate is an astonishing 55 percent. More than 111,000 of the city's residents have lab-confirmed cases of COVID-19, but Sarah Pavis, a 36-year-old engineer in New York, is not among them."

New York's Cuomo, concerned about COVID-19 spread, asks protesters to get tested by Peter Szekely and Barbara Goldberg, Reuters, June 4, 2020.

Cuomo: Protesters should assume they've been exposed to COVID-19 by Audrey McNamara, CBS News, June 4, 2020.


PHOTO OP

Donald Trump Poses with a Bible at Church Photo Op After Police Clear His Path Using Tear Gas. Rev. Robert Fisher, St. John's rector, called Trump's photo op "kind of shocking". By Tim McGovern and Gabrielle Chung, People, Politics, June 2, 2020.

D.C. Church 'Outraged' That Trump Used It As Photo-Op by Carol Kuruvilla, HuffPost, June 1, 2020.

Of Course Donald Trump Gassed Americans for a Photo-Op by Paul Blumenthal, HuffPost, June 1, 2020.

Fox 'News' and 'Opinion' Wings Agree: Trump Tear-Gassing for a Photo-Op Rules! by Justin Baragona, The Daily Beast, June 2, 2020.

Two evangelical leaders have very different reactions after Trump's church photo-op by Charles Duncan, Charlotte Observer, June 3, 2020.

Trump Said No Tear Gas Used to Clear Protesters for Photo Op. These Canisters Suggest Otherwise. By William Bredderman, The Daily Beast, June 4, 2020.



Taylor Swift slams Trump administration's 'calculated dismantling' of U.S. Postal Service by Tyler Aquilina, Entertainment Weekly, August 15, 2020. Two Tweets from Taylor Swift @taylorswift13 - Aug 15, 2020:
"Trump's calculated dismantling of USPS proves one thing clearly: He is WELL AWARE that we do not want him as our president. He's chosen to blatantly cheat and put millions of Americans' lives at risk in an effort to hold on to power."

"Donald Trump's ineffective leadership gravely worsened the crisis that we are in and he is now taking advantage of it to subvert and destroy our right to vote and vote safely. Request a ballot early. Vote early."

"This isn't the first time Swift has openly criticized the president; in May, she slammed his response to the George Floyd protests, writing, 'We will vote you out in November.'"

Trump defends doctor who claimed medicine is made from alien DNA and walks out of briefing mid question by Griffin Connolly, Washington, Independent, 28 July 2020. "Donald Trump doubled down on his decision to retweet a video of Houston doctor Stella Immanuel in which Ms Immanuel touts the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in treating patients of Covid-19 [despite FDA cautioning against the drug's use] and dismisses masks as unnecessary in stopping its spread."

Obama, Barack:

In leaked call, Obama describes Trump handling of virus as chaotic by Steve Holland, Reuters, May 9, 2020. "What we're fighting against is these long-term trends in which being selfish, being tribal, being divided, and seeing others as an enemy -- that has become a stronger impulse in American life," said Obama. This is one reason why "the response to this global crisis has been so anemic and spotty." 'He was an incompetent president': Trump lashes out at Obama after coronavirus response criticism by Oliver O'Connell, The Independent, May 17, 2020. "On Saturday [May 16, 2020] Mr Obama addressed graduates of historically black colleges and universities. He rebuked the current president for the response to the coronavirus, saying that it revealed the extent of the ineptitudes at the heart of government ... On Sunday [May 17, 2020] morning, White House adviser Peter Navarro ... referring to the previous administration as a 'kumbaya of incompetence' ...

Mr Obama has publicly criticised the current administration, after leaked audio of him calling the White House's response to Covid-19 an 'absolute chaotic disaster' sent Mr Trump furiously seeking to manufacture a scandal in retaliation that he is referring to as 'Obamagate'."

There's a serious problem in the White House right now - and it isn't Obamagate by Andrew Feinberg, Washington DC, The Independent.co.uk, May 15, 2020.

Pandemic Preparedness in the Next Administration: Keynote Address by Anthony S. Fauci, January 10, 2017. YouTube video, 54:51 min. Published on Feb. 14, 2017 by Global Georgetown (Center for Global Health Science and Security - https://ghss.georgetown.edu). Dr. Anthony Fauci Warned in 2017 of 'Surprise Outbreak' during Trump Administration.

Anthony Fauci from Wikipedia. Anthony Stephen Fauci (born December 24, 1940) is an American physician and immunologist who has served as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) since 1984.

Biography of Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Fauci was appointed director of NIAID in 1984.

A cache of 860 pages of Fauci's emails show how he felt about the celebrity buzz over his persona: 'Our society is totally nuts' by Sarah Al-Arshani and Grace Dean, Business Insider, Jun 2, 2021.

'Worst Nightmare' Coronavirus Pandemic Far From Over, Fauci Warns by Dominique Mosbergen, HuffPost, June 9, 2020.

See also: ● Dr. Anthony Fauci warns the coronavirus won't ever be eradicated by Berkeley Lovelace Jr., CNBC, Jul 22 2020.

Fauci: 'The Virus Is a Formidable Foe' by John Whyte, MD, MPH; Anthony S. Fauci, MD, Disclosures, July 18, 2020.

Dr. Anthony Fauci says the U.S. needs to hit 'the reset button' on Covid-19 - here's how by Jade Scipioni, CNBC, Jul 17, 2020.

Coronavirus: Dr. Fauci says COVID-19 is too unpredictable, U.S. still in 'first wave' of outbreakGlobal News, Jul 17, 2020. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation Video, 1:54 min.

Dr. Fauci Remarks on the Coronavirus Pandemic and Reopening the Economy. Dr. Fauci spoke with Suzanne Clark, President of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, C-SPAN, Jul 17, 2020. He discussed the pandemic and responded to a question about making masks mandatory, saying "I would urge the leaders, local, political, and other leaders in cities and states and towns, to be as forceful as possible in getting your citizenry to wear masks."

Dr. Anthony Fauci pleads with young people: 'You're propagating the pandemic' by Berkeley Lovelace Jr. and Noah Higgins-Dunn, CNBC, Jul 17 2020.

Coronavirus: US disease chief Dr Anthony Fauci calls White House attacks 'bizarre' BBC New, Jul 15, 2020.

Anthony Fauci discusses challenges of COVID-19, reasons for hope during Stanford Medicine event by Hanae Armitage, science writer in the Office of Communications, Standford Medicine, July 14, 2020.

Shocking Draft FEMA Report Sees 200,000 COVID-19 Cases, 3,000 Deaths Daily By June 1 by Mary Papenfuss, HuffPost, May 4, 2020. "A rate of 3,000 deaths a day would be about 90,000 deaths a month. That death toll rate would be a 70% increase from the current average of 1,750 a day. The number of current cases of COVID-19 in the nation is about 25,000 daily."

Suing China for causing COVID-19 pandemic? A farce in the name of law by Huo Zhengxin, China Global Television Network (CGTN), March 21, 2020. Huo Zhengxin is a professor of law at the China University of Political Science and Law.

Lawmakers introduce bill that would let Americans sue China over 'Wuhan Virus' by Yaron Steinbuch, New York Post, April 17, 2020.

Thousands sign up to US class action to sue China over coronavirus published by ABC News, Australia. "Thousands of Americans have reportedly signed onto a class action lawsuit in the US state of Florida which seeks compensation from the Chinese Government for COVID-19 damages, as Western politicians increasingly call for accountability.

Class-action suit seeks to bill China for coronavirus fallout: 'We want the court to make them pay' by Tyler Olson, Fox News, March 25, 2020.

US firms launch legal action seeking billions of dollars in damages from China over coronavirus by Nick Allen, The Telegraph, UK, 25 March 2020. A class action lawsuit was launched in Las Vegas.

Coronavirus: Boca law firm sues Chinese government over its role in pandemic by Lulu Ramadan, Palm Beach Post, March 13, 2020. "A Boca Raton firm is seeking class-action status in a lawsuit against the Chinese government, claiming it 'covered up' the dangers of coronavirus."

Frank Biden Law Firm Demands 'Billions' from China over Coronavirus. "The Berman Law Group ... on Friday [March 13, 2020] 'filed a federal class action lawsuit against the People's Republic of China, Hubei Province, the City of Wuhan, and several Chinese government ministries, on behalf of residents and businesses in the United States and the State of Florida,' according to a news release from the firm."

Here Are the Lawmakers Making a Ton of Money Off of the Coronavirus by Vivian Kane, The Mary Sue, March 20, 2020. "The worse things get for you, the more money they make."

Things to Know about the COVID-19 Pandemic from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Nov. 4, 2020.
● Three Important Ways to Slow the Spread
1. Wear a mask to help stop the spread of COVID-19 to others.
2. Stay at least 6 feet (about two arm lengths) from others who don't live with you, particularly in crowded areas.
3. Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds or use hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
● How to Protect Yourself When Going Out
● If You are at Risk of Getting Very Sick
● What to Do If You're Sick
● How to Get a Test for Current Infection
● How to Cope with Stress
● What Symptoms to Watch For
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are:
Fever, Cough, Headaches, Fatigue, Muscle or body aches, Loss of taste or smell, Sore throat, Nausea, Diarrhea
I wear a mask because .... Video, 1:43 min.

Trump Says China May Be 'Knowingly Responsible' for Virus by Mario Parker, Bloomberg, Yahoo! News, April 20, 2020. "President Donald Trump raised the prospect that China deliberately caused the Covid-19 outbreak that's killed over 39,000 Americans and said there should be consequences if the country is found to be 'knowingly responsible' ... Some GOP lawmakers have suggested the virus was released from a lab during Chinese experiments, and have floated a bill that would allow Americans to sue China for damages."

Trump is making America an obstacle in the global fight against Covid-19 by Michael H Fuchs, The Guardian, May 12, 2020. The president's deadly mishandling of the pandemic threatens to make the world's most powerful country a pariah. "President Donald Trump's incompetent handling of the Covid-19 pandemic is not only exacerbating the death and destruction caused by the virus in the US. It is also crippling the global response to the crisis, and the costs could be even deadlier."

Whistleblower warns U.S. is running out of time to bolster its response to COVID-19 pandemic from Thomson Reuters, CBC News, May 14, 2020. Dr. Rick Bright, former director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, which is responsible for developing drugs to fight the coronavirus, told a congressional hearing on May 14, 2020 that he was removed from his government post [April 20, 2020] for raising concerns about coronavirus preparedness, as he testified before the health subcommittee of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

"In a written statement issued the day before [May 13, 2020], Dr. Bright warned that 2020 could be 'the darkest winter in modern history' if the country does not undertake a vigorous response to fight the virus. 'Our window of opportunity is closing. If we fail to develop a national coordinated response, based in science, I fear the pandemic will get far worse and be prolonged, causing unprecedented illness and fatalities.'" ~ Wikipedia.

This Latest Whistleblower Was Fired for Incompetence and Insubordination but Now He's a Hero Because He's Attacking President Trump by streiff, RedState, May 6, 2020. "Just when you thought things couldn't get stupider, you find out you were wrong. We have a whistleblower."

Trump says China may have started coronavirus deliberately by Tom Porter, Business Insider, April 19, 2020. "Blaming the COVID-19 pandemic on China will shift attention away from the US death toll and help clinch his re-election, said Trump's advisors."

Google image from https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/03/27/950263/the-covid-19-pandemic-in-two-animated-charts/
Image source: MIT Technology Review
Confirmed covid-19 fatalities over time
January 22 - April 19, 2020

Trump says he will ban TikTok by Brian Fung, CNN Business, August 1, 2020. "The app has exploded in popularity in the US and other western countries, becoming the first Chinese social media platform to gain significant traction with users outside of its home country. It was downloaded 315 million times in the first three months of this year, more quarterly downloads than any other app in history, according to analytics company Sensor Tower. 'TikTok US user data is stored in the US, with strict controls on employee access. TikTok's biggest investors come from the US. We are committed to protecting our users' privacy and safety as we continue working to bring joy to families and meaningful careers to those who create on our platform,' TikTok spokesperson Hilary McQuaide told CNN Business Saturday. Cybersecurity experts have said TikTok's potential risk to national security is largely theoretical and that there is no evidence to suggest that TikTok's user data has been compromised by Chinese intelligence."

TikTok threatens legal action against Trump US ban from BBC News, August 7, 2020. "TikTok said it would 'pursue all remedies available' to 'ensure the rule of law is not discarded' ... The app is reported to have around 800 million active monthly users, with its biggest markets having grown in the US and India ... Mr Trump issued a similar order against China's WeChat ... As well as WeChat, Tencent is also a leading gaming company ... Mr Trump said this week he would support the sale [of TikTok] to Microsoft [by Sep. 15, 2020] as long as the US government received a 'substantial portion' of the sale price." See also:
WeChat and Global Peers Launch COVID-19 Global Hackathon to Support the World Health Organisation from Cision, PR Newswire, 25 Mar. 2020.
Trump's WeChat ban is on hold after judge grants preliminary injunction by Suhauna Hussain and Ben Muessig, Los Angeles Times, 20 Sep. 2020.

Microsoft pursuing TikTok purchase by September 15th, may invite US investors to deal by Matthew Panzarino, TechCrunch, August 2, 2020. "Microsoft fully appreciates the importance of addressing the President's concerns. It is committed to acquiring TikTok [from ByteDance] subject to a complete security review and providing proper economic benefits to the United States, including the United States Treasury." See also: What Microsoft wanted from a TikTok deal, and why its bid for the hit social video app didn't pan out by Todd Bishop, GeekWire, 14 Sep. 2020.

Oracle wins bid to become TikTok's 'trusted technology provider' in US by Paige Leskin, Business Insider, Sep. 14, 2020. "Microsoft announced Sunday [Sep. 13, 2020] its bid to acquire TikTok had been rejected ... Walmart ... said ... it was still interested in some deal with TikTok despite Microsoft's ousting ... Donald Trump insisted last week a deal for TikTok should be finalized by Sept. 15, Mnuchin has since said the deadline is Sept. 20 - the date set in Donald Trump's first executive order barring 'any transactions' between Americans and ByteDance. That executive order still faces a lawsuit from TikTok, which has alleged Trump's order for ByteDance to sell is unconstitutional."

Trump wants the TikTok deal to pour $5 billion into 'real history' education. It's not that simple by Alexis Benveniste and Jill Disis, CNN Business, Sep. 21, 2020. "This isn't the first time Trump has floated the idea that a TikTok deal should include some kind of monetary reward for the US government. He previously expressed a desire for the companies involved with the deal to give money to the US Treasury, but last week said he was surprised when he was told such an arrangement would be illegal ... ByteDance said Sunday that it was unaware that a multibillion dollar education fund would be tied to the TikTok deal ... While Walmart and Oracle did not mention anything about an education fund in a statement released over the weekend, like ByteDance, they mentioned an 'AI-driven' initiative for students. And they did say that the new TikTok Global entity 'will pay more than 5 billion in new tax dollars to the US Treasury.'"

Doctors and Nurses Take to TikTok to Fight Covid Myths by Helen Santoro, science journalist, WIRED, 6 Sep. 2020. "We can treat only one patient at a time, but if we can get a message out there that can hit thousands or hundreds of thousands, then we can change their thoughts."

Nurse's TikTok Dances Educate People On Coronavirus | Good Neighbor | Digital Exclusive. YouTube video, 1:29 min. Published by The Kelly Clarkson Show, Apr 8, 2020. "Miki, a nurse from San Francisco, California, found a way to connect with young people and help them understand how to protect themselves during the pandemic. Her TikTok dance videos have gone viral and include tips on how to properly wash your hands and the importance of social distancing."

Trump should face manslaughter charges for 'reckless' coronavirus conduct, ex-murder prosecutor says. Former Manhattan attorney suggests president 'recklessly' avoided taking action to control Covid-19. Article by Gino Spocchia, Independent, 16 Oct. 2020. "Trump falsely claims 85% of mask wearers catch covid." "Donald Trump should face second-degree manslaughter charges over his administration's pandemic conduct, an ex-murder prosecutor has said.
Robert Gottlieb, who served as a homicide prosecutor for the Manhattan District Attorney’s office, described the Republican president's actions as 'reckless' as he set out his argument in a New York Daily News article this week.
'In New York, a person is guilty of second-degree manslaughter when he ‘recklessly causes the death of another person,' Mr Gottlieb wrote.
And that, argued the prosecutor, was apparent through Mr Trump's private admission to Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward that the coronavirus was a serious threat to public health."

Can We Call Trump a Killer? by Charles M. Blow, Opinion Columnist, The New York Times, June 24, 2020. "There is no way to remove his culpability in the neglectful handling of the coronavirus ... From the beginning, Trump has used every opportunity to downplay the virus ... Trump has consistently been resistant to testing, falsely claiming that an increase in testing is somehow linked to an increase in cases ... Trump has even mocked the wearing of masks, which experts say is a proven way to reduce virus transmission ... At this point, how do we not label Trump a killer of American citizens by negligence, ignorance and incompetence?"

Trump's Indifference Amounts to Negligent Homicide by James Fallows, Staff writer at The Atlantic, Nov. 20, 2020. "The president's behavior may not meet the term's legal definition, but it captures the horror a government is visiting upon its people ... Negligent homicide has a specific meaning in the law books. The standards of proof and categories of offense vary from state to state. But the essence is: Someone died because someone else did not exercise reasonable care ... I want to consider the nonlegal, commonsense meanings of the term, and of its more gruesome-sounding cousin, manslaughter ... the main case against Trump involved his temperamental, intellectual, and moral unfitness for the job. But since then we've moved into the realm of manslaughter. Yesterday, nearly 2,000 Americans died of COVID-19. By Thanksgiving Day, another 10,000 to 15,000 will have perished. By year's end, who knows? And meanwhile the person in charge of guiding the national response does nothing.

Or worse than nothing. He tweets in rage. He fires anyone suspected of disloyalty. He encourages endless lawsuits that are tossed out of court one after another but that, one after another, do cumulative damage to confidence in elections and democracy ..."

Trump Death Clock: Times Square Billboard Tallies Lives Lost to COVID-19 Inaction from Democracy Now! Independent Global News, May 8, 2020.

Trump Lies; The Numbers Don't by Amy Goodman & Denis Moynihan, Democracy Now! Oct. 22, 2020.

Trump threatens new tariffs on China in retaliation for coronavirus by Jeff Mason, Matt Spetalnick and Humeyra Pamuk, Reuters, April 30, 2020. Trump's sharpened rhetoric against China reflected his growing frustration with Beijing over the pandemic, which has cost tens of thousands of lives in the United States alone, sparked an economic contraction and threatened his chances of re-election in November.

Trump's new coronavirus argument: 2 million people are being saved by Meridith McGraw, Politico, Apr. 11, 2020. "Even as Trump adopts a somber, get-ready-for-the-worst tone, he has still sought to portray himself as a hero for his actions thus far. Don't focus on the 200,000 people the coronavirus might kill in the U.S., think about the 2 million people President Donald Trump is saving."

200,000 COVID-19 Deaths in the United States as of Sep. 22, 2020, CTV News.
Each flag represents 10 deaths
Image source: CTV News, 22 Sep. 2020
    200,000 COVID-19 Deaths in the United States. They deserve better. CTV News, Sep. 22, 2020, CTV News.
They deserve better.
Image source: CTV News, 22 Sep. 2020

20,000 American flags planted near Washington Monument to mark US COVID-19 deaths. Published by Associated Press, Sep. 22, 2020. Each flag represents 10 people in the U.S. who have died due to the pandemic. The U.S. has the largest death toll by far of any country.

Trump Says He Deserves an 'A+' for His Handling of the Coronavirus Pandemic by Tommy Beer, Forbes, Sep. 21, 2020. "President Donald Trump said on Monday [Sep. 21, 2020] that he and his administration have done a 'phenomenal job' and deserve an 'A+' for their handling of the coronavirus pandemic, despite the fact that nearly 200,000 Americans have died from the virus, the most deaths of any country.

White House abandoned plan to send 650 million face masks across the U.S. in April, report says by Hannah Miao, Politics, CNBC, 17 Sep. 2020. "In April [2020], Postal Service leaders drafted an announcement saying the USPS would deliver five reusable face masks to every residence and post office box in the country. The White House ultimately canceled the program."

The U.S. coronavirus death toll tops 200,000, and it's just 'the tip of the iceberg' by Will Feuer, Health and Science, CNBC, Sep. 22, 2020. "The U.S., which accounts for roughly 21% of all confirmed Covid-19 deaths around the world despite having only 4% of the world's population, is battling one of the deadliest outbreaks in the world. The coronavirus has killed more people in the U.S. than the number of Americans who died in both World War I and the Vietnam War combined, according to the Census Bureau."

Number and change of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and deaths among the most impacted countries worldwide as of September 21, 2020 from Statista, Sep. 21, 2020.

Number and change of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and deaths among the most impacted countries worldwide as of September 21, 2020 from Statista.
Coronavirus Cases Among
Most Impacted Countries in World
Source: Statista, 21 Sep. 2020

United States missed opportunities to slow coronavirus outbreak, CDC doctor says by Jessica Schladebeck, New York Daily News, May 2, 2020. The United States was too slow in its coronavirus response and banning travel from Europe, one of several steps officials should have taken sooner to curtail the fast-spreading virus.

US Coronavirus: 1,707 Covid-19 deaths were reported in 1 day. That's the highest daily death toll in 6 months by Holly Yan and Christina Maxouris, CNN, Nov. 18, 2020. "At this rate, coronavirus is killing at least one American every minute of the day ... And it's only going to get worse, said Dr. Jonathan Reiner, a professor at George Washington University School of Medicine. 'The horrible death count that we saw yesterday in the United States ... reflects the number of people who were being infected three weeks ago -- two to three weeks ago, because that's the lag,' Reiner said Wednesday [Nov. 18, 2020]. On average, two to three weeks ago, we were seeing 70,000 to 80,000 (new) cases per day. Yesterday, there were about 155,000 (new) cases. So if you're alarmed at the 1,700 deaths today, two to three weeks from now, we're going to see 3,000 deaths a day.'"

U.S. to seize exports of masks and gloves amid coronavirus crisis by Ted Hesson, U.S.News, 8 Apr. 2020. The United States will seize exports of key protective medical gear until it determines whether the equipment should be kept in the country to combat the spread of the new coronavirus, two federal agencies announced on Wednesday [April 8, 2020].

3M says Trump officials have told it to stop sending face masks to Canada by James McCarten, Canadian Press, 3 Apr. 2020. "Prime Minister Justin Trudeau kept his cool Friday under a barrage of ... questions about whether Canada's supply of the masks is now in jeopardy.

A battle is shaping up between Donald Trump's White House and one of the world's largest manufacturers of protective medical gear - and Canada's supply of surgical masks, a mission-critical tool in the fight against COVID-19, is hanging in the balance.

Minnesota-based 3M says the Trump administration is trying to prevent it from exporting its N95 respirators, the high-grade facemasks that are in high demand and dwindling supply around the world as health professionals, and now members of the North American public, try to defend themselves against the novel coronavirus."

US cast as culprit in global scrum over coronavirus supplies by Nahal Toosi, Politico, 4 Apr. 2020. The Trump administration's desperate hunt for protective gear is provoking anger abroad. "The coronavirus pandemic is pushing countries around the world into a cutthroat competition for medical resources - and the United States is being cast as a leading villain.

US swoop sees 3M masks allegedly diverted from Berlin by Guy Chazan in Berlin, James Politi in Washington and Victor Mallet in Paris, published by Financial Times, April 3, 2020. German official denounces 'modern piracy' but company says it has 'no evidence' of seizure. "Protective medical equipment made by US manufacturer 3M and bound for Germany was allegedly intercepted in Thailand and diverted to the US, leading a senior German official to accuse Washington of 'modern piracy'. But 3M, which has come under intense criticism from the White House for producing face masks for overseas customers, said it had 'no evidence' to suggest a mask order for the city of Berlin had been seized.

U.S. President Donald Trump's administration stands accused of effectively hijacking shipments of masks and additional crucial supplies meant for other countries, including U.S. allies, and strong-arming private firms to prioritize America over other parts of the world. On Friday [April 3], Trump announced he was invoking the Defense Production Act to restrict U.S. exports of key medical gear."

'Lord of the Flies: PPE Edition': U.S. cast as culprit in global scrum over coronavirus supplies by Nahal Toosi, Politico, 3 Apr. 2020. "The Trump administration's desperate hunt for protective gear is provoking anger abroad. In one case, according to a report in The Guardian, American buyers managed to 'wrest control' of a shipment of masks from China that was supposed to go to France by offering three times the selling price. In another report, a German official accused the U.S. of an 'act of modern piracy' after a shipment of masks from China that was meant for Berlin were seized and diverted to the U.S. while en route in Thailand. Similar reports emerged from Brazil, where a top official said China had set aside his country's orders for equipment after the U.S. sent some 20 planes to pick up materials for itself."

White House scrambles to scoop up medical supplies worldwide, angering Canada, Germany by Jeanne Whalen, Loveday Morris, Tom Hamburger and Terrence McCoy, Washington Post, 3 Apr. 2020. Officials from Berlin say the U.S. even hijacked a shipment of masks in Thailand that was bound for Germany.

"The Trump administration has asked 3M to stop exporting the masks to Canada and Latin America, and to import more from 3M's factories in China, the company said Friday [April 3].

At the same time, officials in Berlin expressed outrage over what they said was the diversion to the United States of 200,000 masks that were en route from China, while officials in Brazil and France complained that the United States was outbidding them in the global marketplace for critical medical supplies.

German officials on Friday were stinging in their criticism of the Trump administration after a consignment of face masks that they said was ordered and paid for by the Berlin police was diverted en route from China. Andreas Geisel, Berlin's interior minister, said the delivery made it as far as Bangkok before being 'confiscated.'"

Brazilian official says purchase of supplies redirected to United States screen shot of CNN TV program on April 3, 2020
Brazilian official says purchase of medical supplies
for Brazil's COVID-19 needs redirected to the United States.
Image source: CNN, April 3, 2020


Trump and 3M reach deal to allow N95 face masks to be exported to Canada by Leyland Cecco in Toronto and Julian Borger in Washington, The Guardian, April 7, 2020.

Understanding the massive scale of coronavirus in the US by AJ Willingham, Renée Rigdon and Curt Merrill, CNN, July 29, 2020.

U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly: Ratings for Trump Remain Poor by Richard Wike, Janell Fetterolf and Mara Mordecai, Pew Research, 15 Sep. 2020.

U.S. Justice Department sides with church in COVID-19 religious dispute. "U.S. Attorney General William Barr said: 'The United States Department of Justice will continue to ensure that religious freedom remains protected if any state or local government, in their response to COVID-19, singles out, targets, or discriminates against any house of worship for special restrictions,' referring to the globally pandemic disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The Greenville dispute is one of several around the United States in which religious groups have objected to state or local restrictions on gatherings, saying they infringe on religious rights. Most houses of worship have voluntarily complied with shutdown orders, with some holding services online."

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Cases in U.S. from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Why America has the world's most confirmed Covid-19 cases. Opinion by Jeffrey Sachs, CNN, March 27, 2020. "Our for-profit health care system rakes in money on disease, not on health. Instead, we have a system that works for the rich, instead of a public health system for all Americans ..."

Why the US has the world's highest number of Covid-19 deaths. Opinion by Jeffrey Sachs, CNN, April 12, 2020. Jeffrey Sachs is a professor and director of the Center for Sustainable Development at Columbia University. "Americans will continue to die in large numbers until our country mounts a coherent response to the epidemic. President Donald Trump has failed. The US still lacks even a basic plan for controlling the epidemic and restarting the economy ... Trump will continue to fulminate against WHO and China and any other targets to distract attention. Yet the record is clear: China got the epidemic under control while the US did not. China implemented a strict national lockdown while the US did not ... Trump repeatedly praised China during February, only turning on China when the situation got tough in the US. Unlike China, which turned to its public health experts, Trump turned to Vice President Mike Pence and son-in-law Jared Kushner. Thousands of Americans are dying unnecessarily as a result and we are still far from any coherent national plan. It's only the governors and mayors who are scrambling and who are consulting the experts in their public health systems, universities, and other scientific institutions ..." See Jeffrey Sachs's plan on How to Conquer COVID-19 in the United States.

In long essay, Bill Gates says time and innovation needed before coronavirus lockdowns end by Helen Branswell, STAT, April 23, 2020.

● Hear what Bill Gates has to say: COVID-19 Coronavirus One-on-One with Bill Gates on CNN, 26 March 2020. Google Photos - Short clips. Credits: CNN. See also:

Bill Gates on FOX News: US can beat COVID-19 death projections with nationwide distancing and better testing by Taylor Soper, Geekwire.com, April 5, 2020.

Bill Gates: 'We're in big trouble' until the U.S. has better coronavirus testing by Aarthi Swaminathan, Reporter, Yahoo Finance, April 9, 2020.

What You Need to Know About the Coronavirus. The Atlantic's guide to understanding COVID-19.

The Plan That Could Give Us Our Lives Back or How to Test Every American for COVID-19 Every Day by Robinson Meyer and Alexis C. Madrigal, The Atlantic, August 14, 2020. The U.S. has never had enough coronavirus tests. Now a group of epidemiologists, economists, and dreamers is plotting a new strategy to defeat the virus, even before a vaccine is found. Michael Mina is a professor of epidemiology at Harvard, where he studies the diagnostic testing of infectious diseases. Mina wants to test nearly everyone, nearly every day.

Where the Pandemic Is Only Getting Worse by Yasmeen Serhan, Global, The Atlantic, August 6, 2020. The crisis in the United States shouldn't distract from the worsening situation elsewhere.

The Winter Will Be Worse by Joe Pinsker, Family, The Atlantic, August 5, 2020. When socializing outside gets harder in much of the U.S., daily life will get more dismal, and the virus might spread even further.

Immunology Is Where Intuition Goes to Die by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, August 5, 2020. Which is too bad because we really need to understand how the immune system reacts to the coronavirus.

The Coronavirus Is Never Going Away by Sarah Zhang, Health, The Atlantic, August 4, 2020. No matter what happens now, the virus will continue to circulate around the world.

How the Pandemic Defeated America by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, August 4, 2020. A virus has brought the world's most powerful country to its knees.

A Vaccine Reality Check by Sarah Zhang, Health, The Atlantic, July 24, 2020. So much hope is riding on a breakthrough, but a vaccine is only the beginning of the end.

A Second Coronavirus Death Surge Is Coming by Alexis C. Madrigal, Health, The Atlantic, July 15, 2020. There was always a logical explanation for why cases rose through the end of June while deaths did not.

America Should Prepare for a Double Pandemic by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, July 15, 2020. COVID-19 has steamrolled the country. What happens if another pandemic starts before this one is over?

All the President's Lies About the Coronavirus by Christian Paz, Politics, The Atlantic, July 13, 2020. An unfinished compendium of Trump's overwhelming dishonesty during a national emergency.

A New Understanding of Herd Immunity by James Hamblin, Health, The Atlantic, July 13, 2020. The portion of the population that needs to get sick is not fixed. We can change it.

A Dire Warning From COVID-19 Test Providers by Alexis C. Madrigal and Robinson Meyer, Science, The Atlantic, June 30, 2020. U.S. coronavirus testing could fail again, as surging demand creates new backlogs and delays.

A State-by-State Coronavirus Tracker from Health, The Atlantic, June 25, 2020. The latest number of confirmed cases everywhere in the U.S.

A Devastating New Stage of the Pandemic by Robinson Meyer and Alexis C. Madrigal, Science, The Atlantic, June 25, 2020. The U.S. has seen more cases in the past week than in any week since the pandemic began.

My Brother Is Having 150 People at His Wedding Next Week by James Hamblin, Paging Dr. Hamblin, Health, The Atlantic, June 17, 2020. No one should be expected to attend an in-person gathering right now.

America Is Giving Up on the Pandemic by Alexis C. Madrigal and Robinson Meyer, Science, The Atlantic, June 7, 2020. Businesses are reopening. Protests are erupting nationwide. But the virus isn't done with us.

COVID-19 Can Last for Several Months by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, June 4, 2020. The disease's "long-haulers" have endured relentless waves of debilitating symptoms - and disbelief from doctors and friends.

Does Vitamin D Help Fight COVID-19? By James Hamblin, Paging Dr. Hamblin, Health, The Atlantic, June 3, 2020. Evidence is slowly mounting. Some researchers think that's enough to recommend it.

A Hidden COVID-19 Risk Factor: Your Boss by Olga Khazan, Health, The Atlantic, June 1, 2020. America's flawed approach to sick leave is making the pandemic worse.

So, What Can We Do Now? By Amanda Mull, Health, The Atlantic, May 27, 2020. A guide to staying safe this summer.

We Don't Even Have a COVID-19 Vaccine, and Yet the Conspiracies Are Here by Sarah Zhang, Science, The Atlantic, May 24, 2020. Even as vaccines for the disease are being held up as the last hope for a return to normalcy, misinformation about them is spreading.

Is Everyone Depressed? by James Hamblin, Health, The Atlantic, May 22, 2020. Suddenly, many people meet the criteria for clinical depression. Doctors are scrambling to determine who needs urgent intervention, and who is simply the new normal.

Social Distancing Is Not Enough by Derek Thompson, Staff Writer, Ideas, The Atlantic, May 22, 2020. We will need a comprehensive strategy to reduce the sort of interactions that can lead to more infections.

America's Patchwork Pandemic Is Fraying Even Further by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, May 20, 2020. The coronavirus is coursing through different parts of the U.S. in different ways, making the crisis harder to predict, control, or understand ... America spent much of April on a disquieting plateau, with every day bringing about 30,000 new cases and about 2,000 new deaths.

State and Federal Data on COVID-19 Testing Don't Match Up by Robinson Meyer and Alexis C. Madrigal, Health, The Atlantic, May 17, 2020. The CDC has quietly started releasing nationwide numbers. But they contradict what states themselves are reporting.

Why the Coronavirus Hits Kids and Adults So Differently by Sarah Zhang, Science, The Atlantic, May 15, 2020. COVID-19 is much less severe in children, and it could have to do with a child's still-developing immune system.

The Coming Mental-Health Crisis by Norma Ornstein, Benjamin F. Miller, and Kavita Patel, Ideas, The Atlantic, May 14, 2020. Congress must rethink the American approach to mental-health care during the pandemic.

There's One Big Reason the U.S. Economy Can't Reopen by Robinson Meyer, Science, The Atlantic, May 8, 2020. The country faces the same problem today that it did two months ago: There are not enough tests to contain the virus.

The Worst Situation Imaginable for Family Violence by Ashley Fetters and Olga Khazan, Family, The Atlantic, May 8, 2020. All over the United States, adults and children have been quarantined for weeks with people who hurt them.

Their States Are in Crisis. They're Declaring Victory Anyway by Elaine Godfrey, Politics, The Atlantic, May 8, 2020. For the Republican governors reopening their economies, "bad news may be around the corner."

A Guide to Staying Safe as States Reopen by Joe Pinsker, Family, The Atlantic, May 7, 2020. Can I eat at a restaurant? Can I go shopping? Can I hug my friends again? Experts weigh in.

Why the Coronavirus Is So Confusing by Ed Yong, Health, The Atlantic, April 29, 2020. A guide to making sense of a problem that is now too big for any one person to fully comprehend.

Vaccinated US nurse contracts COVID-19, expert says Pfizer shot needed more time to work from ABC Reuters, Dec. 30, 2020.

Which major retail companies have filed for bankruptcy since the coronavirus pandemic hit? Here's the list. By Emily Pandise, NBC News, Yahoo! News, May 18, 2020. "... the coronavirus has seemingly spared no one in its devastation of the U.S. economy ... Dean & Deluca, Apex Parks, FoodFirst, Bravo and Brio Restaurant Parent, True Religion Apparel, CMX Cinemas, J. Crew, Gold's Gym, Neiman Marcus, Stage Stores, (Bealls, Goody's, Palais Royal, Peebles, Gordman's, and Stage Parent), JCPenney.

● Timeline of events:

1. WHO and CDC never discussed providing international test kits to the US, global health agency says by Arman Azad, CNN, March 18, 2020. The U.S. did not use COVID-19 diagnostic tests produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in favor of producing its own. On January 17, WHO published a protocol from German researchers with the instructions necessary for any country to manufacture coronavirus tests. That same day, a top US health official said that the CDC had developed an early version of its own test - not relying on any protocols published by the WHO ... As the United States struggled to launch testing for the novel coronavirus using kits developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization (WHO) shipped hundreds of thousands of tests to countries around the world.

2. WHO praises China's 'strong action' to quarantine 11mn in Wuhan as outbreak kills 17, with 95 critical RT World News, Jan. 23, 2020.

3. Trump lauds Chinese leader Xi amid coronavirus panic The Washington Times, Feb 7, 2020.

4. CDC Lab Contamination Delayed Coronavirus Testingby Ashley Yeager, The Scientist, April 20, 2020. Assembling the first COVID-19 test kits in the same room as coronavirus material, along with other practices that didn't follow protocol, made the tests unusable, officials say.

5. CDC lab for coronavirus test kits may be contaminated: report by Madeline Farber, Fox News, March 7, 2020.

6. Trump condemns CDC for lack of coronavirus testing, blames Obama by Rebecca Shabad, NBC News, March 13, 2020. The president called the past administration's response to the swine flu, H1N1, pandemic a "full-scale disaster."

7. 'Timeline of Trump's COVID-19 Statements' Meme - Fact Checks, Politics / By Arturo Garcia / March 17, 2020

8. A timeline of what Trump has said on coronavirus by Kathryn Watson, CBS News, April 3, 2020.

9. 'Now is not the time': World Health Organisation hits back at Trump after he threatened to withdraw $513m in funding over the botched response to coronavirus pandemic by Chris Dyer, Dailymail.co.uk, April 8, 2020.
President Trump has criticized the World Health Organization and threatened to cut the agency's funding
He branded UN agency as 'China centric', saying the WHO 'called it wrong' in its response to the coronavirus
WHO has came under fire for a slow response as the virus spread and for pushing Chinese misinformation
Agency hit back at Trump's criticism saying that a global pandemic 'is not the time to cut back on funding'
UN has also rejected criticism of the WHO and backed the director-general of the health agency, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

10. Trump halts World Health Organization funding over handling of coronavirus outbreak by Betsy Klein and Jennifer Hansler, CNN, April 15, 2020.

11. Trump vs. himself: How he dismissed the coronavirus, in his own words by Josh K. Elliott, Global News, April 15, 2020. Article covers Trump's COVID-19 or Coronavirus statements from January 22 to April 14, 2020. Trump has "gone from downplaying the threat, to claiming total control of the crisis, to blaming his usual list of suspects for every setback. Those usual suspects have included the Democrats, the media, Barack Obama, China and, most recently, the World Health Organization, which he's now trying to financially starve out for supposedly not raising the alarm early enough ... anything good that happens is because of Trump, and anything bad that happens is because of someone else."

12. China pushes back on Trump administration coronavirus theory by Calvin Woodward, AP News, April 17, 2020. "Trump officials have largely been steering clear of baseless conspiracy theories in circulation that the virus was intentionally set loose by China, even as some give weight to the unsubstantiated idea the virus mistakenly spread from a negligent lab in Wuhan. Experts overwhelmingly say analysis of the new coronavirus's genome rules out the possibility that it was engineered by humans, as some commentators have suggested. Nor is it likely that the virus emerged from a negligent laboratory in Wuhan, they say."

13. World leaders pledge $8 billion to fight COVID-19 but U.S. steers clear by Robin Emmott and Francesco Guarascio, Reuters, May 4, 2020. BRUSSELS (Reuters) - World leaders promised $8 billion on Monday (May 4, 2020) as part of a pledging 'marathon' to raise money for research into a possible vaccine and treatments for the coronavirus. Organisers included the European Union and non-EU countries Britain, Norway and Saudi Arabia. Leaders from Japan, Canada, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and dozens of other countries joined the virtual event. The United States, which has the world's most confirmed cases of the COVID-19 disease, did not contribute to the global effort.

14. White House Adviser Blames CDC for Coronavirus Testing Problems by Lisa Hagen, Reporter, U.S. News, May 17, 2020. Peter Navarro said the CDC 'let the country down' on testing as states begin reopening.

15. Navarro ties Obama, Biden and China together in coronavirus attack by Rishika Dugyala, Politico, May 17, 2020. The White House adviser Navarro speaks of corruption and incompetence. "President Donald Trump ... has built the 'most beautiful economy in modern history' ... though China 'did take that down in about 30 days.' ... Using the term 'China virus,' he said it could have been contained in Wuhan, where it was thought to have originated. However, he said, the Chinese government intentionally hid information and sent its citizens to other countries to 'seed' the virus. While saying that he did not believe China deliberately unleashed Covid-19 on the world, Navarro pointed to FBI warnings that the Chinese government is hacking intellectual property, saying it was part of its effort to steal vaccines. 'And what would they do with it? It wouldn't be a benign experience. They'd use that vaccine to profiteer and hold the world hostage. So yes, I do blame the Chinese. Trump is the only one to 'stand up to China,' Navarro asserted, unlike Democratic rival Biden who's 'got 40 years of sucking up' to that government. Navarro also pushed the false claim that Biden's son, Hunter Biden, took a billion dollars from the Chinese."

In reference to Navarro's comment about China "stealing vaccines and use that vaccine to profiteer and hold the world hostage" check out this article: China's Xi pledges $2 billion to help fight coronavirus by Evelyn Cheng, CNBC, May 18, 2020. At a WHO video conference, Chinese President Xi Jinping promised to provide $2 billion over two years to help other countries respond to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. Xi added that when a vaccine for the disease is available, it "will be made a global public good." Remember also that on May 4, 2020, world leaders pledged $8 billion to fight COVID-19, except for world leader Donald Trump, President of the United States, who pledged nothing.

Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg said she regretted that decision (of Trump halting funding to WHO), as well as Washington's absence on May 4, 2020. "It is a pity the U.S. is not a part of it. When you are in a crisis, you manage it and you do it jointly with others," Solberg told Reuters in an interview, pledging $1 billion to support the distribution of any vaccine developed against COVID-19, and for vaccines against other diseases.

16. Azar calls White House adviser's CDC criticism 'inaccurate and inappropriate' by Dan Goldberg, Politico, May 18, 2020. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said the initial CDC test was problematic but contended it didn't set back its coronavirus response.

5. COVID-19 in Canada

leaf CANADA

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Canada from Wikipedia.

* Canada - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

21-year-old Toronto man shot and killed allegedly following a fight over social distancing. Global News Video, 2:10 min. CRIME, posted on Oct. 26, 2020, 12:11 pm. "Police say a 21-year-old man was shot and killed outside an LCBO in Toronto's east end following an alleged dispute over social distancing. The suspect is now facing a first-degree murder charge."

Man arrested after verbal altercation leads to fatal shooting at Scarborough LCBO. 680 News Video, 1:00 min. Published by 680 News Staff, Oct. 25, 2020, 5:57 pm EST. "Toronto police have made an arrest after a 21-year-old man was shot and killed in a shooting that took place in an LCBO parking lot near Danforth Avenue and Victoria Park Avenue Sunday [Oct. 25, 2020] evening. Police tweeted around 6 p.m. that they had been called to the area for reports of gunfire. When officers arrived, they found a man suffering from serious injuries. Toronto Paramedic Services said it transported the victim to hospital in life-threatening condition. He later succumbed to his injuries. The victim has been identified as 21-year-old Jakub Sudomericky."

Man gunned down outside Toronto LCBO after alleged social distancing dispute identified by Codi Wilson, Web Content Writer, CP24. Oct. 25, 2020, 6:01pm EDT. "Police were called to the area of Danforth Road and Victoria Park Avenue at around 5:30 p.m. on Sunday for reports of a shooting. A 21-year-old man was reportedly making a purchase at a store while a 20-year-old man and woman were also making a purchase, police said. A verbal argument happened between the two men before they made their purchases and left the store, according to police. One witness and a police source told CP24 on Monday that the men were arguing over social distancing inside the store and continued their dispute outside. A short time later, police said the 21-year-old man was seen running through the parking lot and gunshots were heard and he was then seen laying on the ground ... Witnesses told police that three suspects were seen fleeing the area in a silver Honda and the vehicle was later stopped by officers about 1.5 kilometres from the scene of the shooting."

21-year-old man fatally shot outside Toronto LCBO following argument over social distancing by Gabby Rodrigues and Katrina Ramlochan, Global News, Oct. 25, 2020, 7:43 pm. "The suspects fled the scene but were arrested shortly after, police said. Det. Amanda Thornton told reporters that a 911 caller had given the suspects' licence plate number to the operator. 'Responding officers located the vehicle within eight minutes of the shooting and less than two kilometres away from the scene,' Thornton said. Three occupants inside that vehicle were arrested, Thornton added. Michael Roberts, a 20-year-old resident of Toronto, was charged with first-degree murder."

WARMINGTON: Focus on social distancing in tragic murder. Toronto Sun Video, 3:02 min. By Joe Warmington, Toronto Sun Reporter, Oct. 27, 2020.

27 ways for the financially fortunate to help out by Rob Carrick, Personal Finance Columnist, Globe and Mail, March 31, 2020.

82% of Canada's COVID-19 deaths have been in long-term care, new data reveals by Tonda MacCharles, Ottawa Bureau, May 7, 2020. "The National Institute on Aging says that as of May 6, 3,436 residents and six staff members of long term care settings had died of COVID-19, representing 82 per cent of the 4,167 deaths reported as of Wednesday [May 13, 2020]. Dr. Samir Sinha, research director at the institute, says it is a staggering figure, given the roughly 400,000 residents living in care homes represent just one per cent of Canada's population. And it is a much higher figure than was indicated in a study released days ago by the International Long-Term Care Policy Network. It said people in long-term care accounted for 62 per cent of Canada's COVID-19 deaths. It also found Canada has the highest proportion of deaths from COVID-19 in long term care settings among 14 countries."

At Montreal's Jewish General, nurses feel 'cheated' after province postpones second dose from CBC News, 8 Jan. 2021. "Some nurses at Montreal's Jewish General Hospital who received a first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine told CBC they are disappointed and frustrated with the Quebec government's decision to postpone their promised second dose ... All three nurses CBC spoke to received their first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine before Christmas, with the understanding they would receive the second dose within 21 days, as recommended by the manufacturer. All three said when they were given their appointments for the first dose, they were given appointments for the second dose at the same time."

Pfizer pushes back after Quebec delays second vaccine doses, says data doesn't exist by Selena Ross, Digital Reporter, CTV News Montreal, 5 Jan. 2021. "... pushback came from Pfizer, which told CTV News this week that Quebec should not be asserting that it's fine to delay the booster shot for the company's two-shot vaccine. Pfizer spokesperson Christina Antoniou said, 'We can only support usage of the product according to the label and indication agreed upon with Health Canada.' Pfizer's second shot is meant to be given three weeks after the first, but Quebec is now using all those intended second doses as first doses, saying more people will get some immunity that way."

Braid: Kenney begins to normalize COVID-19 as a risk mainly to the elderly, almost zero danger to the young by Don Braid, Calgary Herald, May 27, 2020. "In Canada, 95 per cent of fatalities from COVID are from those over the age of 60, 80 per cent are in care facilities, and the risk of death from COVID for people under 65 is 0.006 per cent."

COVID-19's impact on young people "worse than the very worst of the AIDS epidemic," doctor says by Analisa Novak, CBS News, 18 Dec. 2020. Watch video, 10:37 min. "Deadly toll of COVID-19 on young adults" by Dr. Jeremy Faust. "According to the analysis published in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, from March 1 to July 31, 2020, there were 11,899 more deaths from all causes than would normally be expected in that time period among U.S. adults aged 25 to 44 years. July saw a total of over 16,000 deaths in that age group, compared to a normal July average of about 11,000.

Dr. Jeremy Samuel Faust, an emergency medicine physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, was one of the authors of that study and also co-wrote an op-ed about it for The New York Times entitled 'People Thought Covid-19 Was Relatively Harmless for Younger Adults. They Were Wrong.'"

B1617 variant has been detected in Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec region from CBC, Apr. 21, 2021. "A first case of B1617, a COVID-19 variant first detected in India, has been identified in Quebec's Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec region, according to public health authorities ... The patient received a first vaccine dose in January [2021] - at that time, only Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were available in Quebec - and then became infected a couple of months later ... Dr. Alain Lamarre, an immunologist and virologist with the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), says the two mutations present in B1617 have been associated with a poorer antibody response. That means the antibodies developed through a vaccine or a previous COVID-19 infection are less effective at neutralizing the new version of the disease, he said. 'All we know is that it contains mutations - two mutations - and that's why we call it double mutant, which have been associated with a poorer response of antibodies.'"

Dozens of cases of 'double mutant' COVID-19 variant confirmed in B.C. by Simon Little, Global News, Apr. 21, 2021. "British Columbia health officials confirmed more than three dozen cases of a COVID-19 variant first detected in India that's being looked at as a possible contributor to rampant spread of the virus in that country.

The Ministry of Health said the province had identified 39 cases of the B.1617 variant as of April 4, but that it hadn't been flagged as either a variant of concern or variant under investigation at that point. B.1617 has now been designated a variant of interest ...The B.C. CDC has reported at least 11 flights from India with COVID-19 exposures since the beginning of April ... The variant is being described as a 'double mutant' due to a pair of mutations that the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare says may confer 'immune escape and increased infectivity.'

India has reported more than 250,000 new cases of COVID-19 daily this week and doctors are investigating whether the variant could be part of the reason. Health Minister Adrian Dix said the variant had not been officially designated as a 'variant of concern' ... In an interview with Global News Wednesday [Apr. 21, 2021], Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said the federal government was looking at additional measures to protect international borders, but would not restrict flights from India."

Government of Canada suspends flights from India and Pakistan from Transport Canada, News release, April 22, 2021. "Transport Canada has issued a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) to suspend all commercial and private passenger flights from India and Pakistan for 30 days, effective 23:30 EDT April 22, 2021.

The Minister of Transport will amend the Interim Order Respecting Certain Requirements for Civil Aviation Due to COVID-19, which means for passengers who depart India or Pakistan to Canada after 23:30 EDT April 22, 2021, via an indirect route, they will need to obtain a negative COVID-19 pre-departure test from a third country before continuing their journey to Canada.

These measures will help manage the elevated risk of imported cases of COVID-19 and variants of concern into Canada during a time of increasing pressure on our health care system."

Canada must be tough on new U.S. aluminum tariffs by Meg Gingrich, researcher at the United Steelworkers Canadian National Office, Behind the Numbers, 27 Aug 2020. "... the current tariffs on aluminum, like the original 2018 tariffs, have nothing to do with national security. Rather, they are a result of a U.S. president [Donald Trump] who wants to appear to act on behalf of the American worker by being tough on trade, while really acting on behalf of the interests of private capital.

... the COVID pandemic threw the industry into flux, leading to a drastic reduction in demand for anything other that the least processed type of aluminum (unalloyed, unwrought), due to auto plant and other manufacturing sector shutdowns across the continent.

Neither U.S. nor Canadian workers will benefit from this situation ... Even with tariffs imposed, the U.S. is unlikely to ramp up its primary aluminum production anytime soon, if ever. In the end, these tariffs will only hurt workers in both countries."

See related article: Trump announces he is reimposing aluminum tariffs on Canada by Eric Zimmer, DailyHive, 6 Aug 2020. "In the time of a global pandemic and an economic crisis, the last thing Canadian and American workers need is new tariffs that will raise costs for manufacturers and consumers, impede the free flow of trade, and hurt provincial and state economies," said Chrystia Freeland, Canada's Deputy Prime Minister.

The Trump administration drops its aluminum tariffs just hours ahead of Ottawa's planned retaliation by Tonda MacCharles, Ottawa Bureau, The Star, 15 Sep. 2020. "Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Chrystia Freeland says, 'The last thing that Canadians and Americans need in the middle of this pandemic is another trade war.' ... Trump's tariffs had taken effect in August. Their withdrawal is retroactive to Sept. 1, meaning U.S. buyers of Canadian aluminum were on the hook for about three weeks of tariff payments - money that went to the U.S. treasury. Canadian producers argued the whole dispute was wrong-headed from the beginning, and took focus off a common problem for Canada and U.S. aluminum producers: cheaper Chinese imports. The U.S. left a threat hanging in the air."

Canada's COVID-19 Economic Response Plan. Financial Assistance for Canadians from the Government of Canada:
Support for individuals
Support for businesses
Support for industries.

New $37B COVID-19 aid package extends CERB, expands EI and adds 'recovery' benefits by Kathleen Harris, CBC News, 20 Aug 2020. New benefits will help self-employed and gig workers and pay for 10-day sick leave. CERB, which has already paid out more than $69 billion to more than 8.6 million recipients, will now be in place until Sept. 27 [2020], extending the program from six months to 28 weeks. Note: Gig workers are independent contractors, online platform workers, contract firm workers, on-call workers and temporary workers. ~ Wikipedia.

Federal government details support programs for Canadians coping with the coronavirus by Jessy Bains, Yahoo Finance Canada, April 1, 2020. Canadians affected by the coronavirus need to choose between the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) and the Canada Emergency Wage Subsity. You cannot get both. You can apply for the CERB in CRA My Account or over the phone. The CERB will provide $500 per week for up to 16 weeks.

How do I register for a CRA user ID and password? My Account for Individuals. My Business Account.

● Businesses can apply for the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy through the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) website. Prime Minister Trudeau calls for businesses to top up wages not covered by the 75 per cent subsidy.

Changes to taxes and benefits: CRA and COVID-19 from Canada Revenue Agency (CRA).

COVID-19 and CERB: Here's who can't receive the $2,000 monthly benefit in Canada - and why from Yahoo Canada Original Videos, April 2, 2020. Note: Rules will soon be changed, PM Trudeau announced on April 8, 2020. Check Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) site for latest updates.

The Government of Canada's Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) ended on September 27, 2020. Now [circa April 2021], the government is offering a modified version of Employment Insurance (EI) to Canadians who are out of work due to COVID-19.

If you are not eligible for EI or if you've received the maximum number of weeks of EI regular benefits, you may be eligible for the new benefits: Canada Recovery Benefit (CRB), Canada Recovery Sickness Benefit (CRSB) and Canada Recovery Caregiving Benefit (CRCB) - Benefits available until September 25, 2021. See Transition from CERB to Employment Insurance (EI) to learn if you qualify.

Coronavirus Income Support ESTIMATOR for GST / CCB / CERB. This COVIDCalculator is a handy tool provided by Preet Banerjee, founder of MoneyGaps.

What You Need to Know About Your Taxes and COVID-19 by Jennifer D'Agostino, Intuit QuickBooks Small Business Centre. "With the pandemic introducing more work-from-home days, filing your 2020 taxes will be a little different this year. There are a few things you will have to take into consideration ... including CERB payments in new rules introduced by the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). Learn how to prepare and what to expect when filing your COVID-19 taxes."

Canada City of Mississauga - COVID-19. The City of Mississauga is providing leadership and support throughout the evolving COVID-19 crisis. Site contents: Latest updates and news, Closures and cancellations, City services during the COVID-19 outbreak, Relief for Residents, Interim Tax Payment Deferral, Guidance for Businesses, Health Advice, Tele Town Hall, Additional Resources. (Relief for Residents include FREE transit, Suspension of parking enforcement, Stormwater charge deferral. Interim tax payment is automatically deferred for 90 days unless you wish to pay on time as before. No late payment charges from April 1 to June 30, 2020).

Latest City of Mississauga COVID-19 news. You can also follow @CityMississauga on Twitter to stay informed.

Canada COVID-19: Economic Support & Resources for Businesses. Support & Recovery for Businesses, Support & Recovery for Individuals & Families. See a list of resources which can be used to help minimize COVID-19 pandemic impacts and help get Toronto residents back on their feet.

Canadian coronavirus vaccine candidate delivers promising results in animal tests by Ivan Semeniuk, Science Reporter, The Globe and Mail [Toronto], May 25, 2020.

Potential COVID-19 vaccine clears 'major milestone': Sask. researchers by Kelly Provost, CBC News, May 25, 2020. "A potential COVID-19 vaccine has achieved a "major milestone" in moving toward human clinical trials, according to researchers in Saskatchewan ... Centre director Dr. Volker Gerdts said it is likely this candidate will be a vaccine one day ... Gerdts said he hopes the vaccine will be ready under emergency authorization in the first half of 2021 for populations in the highest need."

Canadians who don't qualify for CERB are getting it anyway - and could face consequences from CBC, May 1, 2020. More than 7 million Canadians have applied for the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) - but CBC News has learned that some of them shouldn't actually be getting the $2,000-per-month payment. And those receiving the money who aren't entitled to it could be putting their own financial futures at risk. Few realize that they'll have to pay taxes on the additional income and could see clawbacks of other benefits, such as tax credits or the Guaranteed Income Supplement ...

To qualify for the CERB, an applicant must be a Canadian resident over 15 years of age who has been forced to stop working because of the pandemic. The applicant also must have earned a minimum of $5,000 over the last 12 months and must expect to make less than $1,000 a month while collecting the benefit ...

Kevin Page, president of the Institute of Fiscal Studies and Democracy at the University of Ottawa and a former parliamentary budget officer, said that given the size of the CERB program and the other relief packages, even a fraud rate of one per cent could cost the federal government billions of dollars.

Canada Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Symptoms and treatment
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Prevention and risks
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Travel advice
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Being prepared
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): For health professionals
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Canada's response
Government of Canada takes action on COVID-19
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Awareness resources - Infographics and Fact Sheets
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Guidance documents - Technical guidance on COVID-19 for communities, schools, daycares, and health professionals.

COVID-19 hospital bills could cost $23,000 and up, expert says by Twinkle Ghosh, Global News, Mar. 25, 2021. "The average cost of a COVID-19-related hospitalization in Canada is projected at $23,000 per stay, according to new data released by the Canadian Institute of Health Information (CIHI) on Thursday. The estimated figure, as cited on CIHI's COVID-19 Hospitalization and Emergency Department Statistics, 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, is about four times the cost of a regular hospital stay, which is $6,000."

Experts advising Ottawa identify priority groups for COVID-19 vaccine by Ivan Semeniuk, Science Report, 3 Nov. 2020. "An independent committee of experts advising the federal government has come up with its initial set of recommendations for who in Canada should be first in line for COVID-19 vaccines once one or more become available ... In its report, the committee identified four broad categories and related criteria for prioritizing who should be vaccinated. They include:
1. Individuals at high risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19, including people of advanced age or those with medical conditions that increase their risk factor;
2. Individuals most likely to transmit COVID-19 to members of a high risk group, including health care and long-term care workers;
3. Workers involved in maintaining essential services - a category that will be up to governments to define and prioritize;
4. Anyone at high risk of infection because of working or living conditions and where infection could lead to disproportionate consequences."

Canada Food Banks Canada is launching a special $150M appeal for donations to help ensure that food banks can continue their critical work as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.

How to avoid common coronavirus phishing scams from Bank of Montreal, Mar. 16, 2020. Cybercriminals are capitalizing on fear surrounding COVID-19 with several new phishing scams. Learn how you can keep yourself safe from coronavirus scams. Some current COVID-19 phishing scams to watch out for: Updates from employers, Text messages about COVID-19 testing, Government compensation messages, Medical tips and product offers.

How to protect yourself from phishing scams: Read emails and texts carefully, Watch for red flags: impersonal or generic greetings, spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, Check links in emails by hovering before you click to see if the URL leads to the site indicated, Don't click on attachments or links from unknown sources, Don’t feel pressured to reply to an urgent request.

Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from Region of Peel. Contents: Confirmed positive COVID-19 cases in Peel. Services and facilities temporarily affected in Peel. Protecting yourself and others. Getting tested for COVID-19. Instructions for travellers from outside Canada. Workplaces, schools and child care centres. About novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Information for health professionals. Additional information sources.

2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) self-assessment. If you think you have 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) symptoms or have been in close contact with someone who has it, use this self-assessment to help determine if you need to seek further care.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - How to self-monitor from Public Health Ontario. Monitor for symptoms for 14 days after exposure (Fever, Cough, Difficulty Breathing), Avoid public spaces, What to do if you develop these or any other symptoms?

Not so fast: Canada's top COVID-19 doctor says 'now is not the time to relax our measures' - a warning for provinces by Elisabetta Bianchini, Yaahoo! News, May 28, 2021. "When 75 per cent of people in Canada 12 and older are fully vaccinated 'it may also be safe to begin easing personal protective measures, without overwhelming hospital capacity.'
The short-term forecasting predicts that by June 10 [2021] Canada will see cumulative reported COVID-19 cases total between 1,387,210 and 1,426,400, with deaths between 25,590 and 26,310."

Ontario COVID-19 Colour Codes
Image source: Government of Ontario
    Ontario COVID-19 Colour Codes
Image source: BayToday

Ontario Colour Codes - COVID-19 response framework: keeping Ontario safe and open from Government of Ontario. Learn about the public health and workplace safety measures for each zone under the colour-coded response framework. Call the Stop the Spread Business Information Line at 1-888-444-3659 for more info.
Green (Prevent) - consists of loosened restrictions and only certain high-risk locations remaining closed.
Yellow (Protect) - health units will see increased measures and guidelines for businesses or organizations that are open.
Orange (Restrict) - restrictions enhanced further from the "protect" level.
Red (Control) - further restrictions and the closure of some businesses or organizations.
Grey (Lockdown) - the most stringent restrictions for residents and businesses.

Peel Public Health incorrectly reports COVID-19 staff death at Mississauga retirement living home by Sabrina Gamrot, Mississauga News, 11 Jan. 2021. "Parkland on the Glen has zero staff cases of COVID-19. A Mississauga retirement living home says none of their staff members have died from COVID-19, despite a recent update from Peel Public Health (PPH). As of Monday, Jan. 11 [2021], PPH reported that one staff member at Parkland on the Glen, operated by Shannex, in Mississauga had died from the virus. However, Gillian Costello of Shannex confirmed this was false."

Trudeau, Ford unveil deal to produce N95 masks at 3M plant in Brockville, Ont. by Staff, The Canadian Press, August 21, 2020. Under the agreement, 3M is to increase capacity at its Brockville, Ont., facility so it can produce up to 100 million medical-grade N95 masks a year. The federal and Ontario governments are each kicking in $23.3 million to help increase production capacity at the plant.

6. COVID-19 in China

CHINA:

* 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic in China from Wikipedia.

* China - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

This is what China did to beat coronavirus. Experts say America couldn't handle it. By Kim Hjelmgaard, Eric J. Lyman and Deirdre Shesgreen, USA TODAY, Apr. 1, 2020. China's zero contact: "Lockdowns, bans on gatherings, basic quarantines, testing, hand-washing, this is not enough," Huiyao Wang, a senior adviser to China's government, told USA TODAY in a phone interview from Beijing. "You need to isolate people on an enormous scale, in stadiums, big exhibition halls, wherever you can. It seems extreme. It works. 'No one left behind' was the slogan in Wuhan," he said. "No one."

"We couldn't go outside under any circumstances. Not even if you have a pet," said Wang Jingjun, 27, a graduate student ... "Those with dogs had to play with them inside and teach them to use the bathroom in a certain spot."

During Wuhan lockdown: "Video footage published by the Australian Broadcasting Corp ... showed Chinese authorities in Wuhan welding doors to entire apartment buildings shut - with residents inside - to enforce quarantines." This video was actually aired on Canadian TV channels and I personally watched it a few times in awe and amazement. I also saw a video of Chinese authorities, in full protective gear, forcing and dragging people (who were kicking and screaming) against their will into vehicles to be taken to the hospital.

"It was not just families being isolated together in Wuhan but individuals being isolated away from their friends and families," said Andy Mok, a fellow at the Center for China and Globalization, a public policy think tank based in Beijing. 'China's response to the outbreak was truly a nationwide response: systematic, comprehensive and coordinated. This is why China was able to 'flatten the curve' so dramatically," he said.

The following comment by Elon Musk is a good indication of why Experts say America couldn't handle a lockdown. Elon Musk launches bizarre Twitter rant causing Tesla shares to drop over 11% by Luke O'Reilly, Evening Standard, May 1, 2020. "Mr Musk has remained an outspoken critic of the coronavirus lockdown. The entrepreneur reportedly said in comments to analysts on Tesla Inc's earnings call that it was 'fascist' to say people cannot leave their homes. 'This is not democratic, this is not freedom. Give people back their goddamn freedom,' Musk said."

Donald Trump Backs Elon Musk for Reopening Tesla Plant Despite Covid-19 Lockdown News18, May 13, 2020. "Musk tweeted 'Thank you!' in response to Trump on Tuesday [May 12, 2020]. Tesla shares were up 1.1% at $820.44 in late trading on Tuesday."

Security guard shot and killed after asking Family Dollar customer to wear mask, 3 charged. Associated Press, Flint, Michigan, U.S.A. May 4, 2020. "A woman, her adult son and husband have been charged in the fatal shooting of a security guard who refused to let her daughter enter a Family Dollar in Michigan because she wasn't wearing a face mask to protect against transmission of the coronavirus ... Teague, 45; her husband, Larry Teague, 44; and Ramonyea Bishop, 23; are charged with first-degree premeditated murder and gun charges. Witnesses identified Bishop as the man who shot Calvin 'Duper' James Munerlyn (security guard) in the back of the head. Larry Teague also is charged with violating Governor Gretchen Whitmer's executive order mandating that all customers and employees must wear face coverings inside grocery stores."

Target security guard breaks arm during fight with men who allegedly refused to wear face masks by Christopher Brito, CBS News, May 13, 2020. "A Target security guard broke his arm during a brawl with two men after they were confronted for allegedly not wearing masks, Los Angeles Police Department said in a statement Monday [May 11, 2020]. The would-be shoppers were charged with assault, police said.">

Wuhan, China. Video, 3:44 min. This video on Wuhan will surprise you.
Wuhan under Lockdown. Video, 1:51 min. The city in central China, with a population of 11 million, has been in lockdown since January 23, 2020.
Wuhan ends 76-day lockdown brought on by coronavirus pandemic from WUSA9.com. Video, 2:26 min. A light show illuminated the night sky in Wuhan to celebrate the end of a 76-day lockdown for the city at the epicenter of China's coronavirus pandemic. Article by Sam McNEIL (Associated Press), April 7, 2020.

China appears confident that its coronavirus epidemic has abated from The Economist, March 12, 2020. "Seven weeks after cordoning off Hubei, the Communist Party is itching to declare victory over the novel coronavirus that has swept across the country from that central province. On March 10th the country's leader, Xi Jinping, visited Hubei's capital, Wuhan ... Mr Xi said the spread of the virus had been 'basically' curbed."

China Is Inoculating Thousands With Unapproved COVID-19 Vaccines. Why? By Emily Feng and John Ruwitch, \NPR headquarters in Washington, DC, Nov. 12, 2020. "China has four experimental vaccines developed by three companies now going through phase III human trials and safety testing before they can be approved for commercial use. Sinopharm and Sinovac, the two front-runners, have both stressed they are not ready to deploy their vaccines commercially ... Sinovac has already set up several vaccination sites in China's coastal Zhejiang province where several hundred vaccine doses each day are sold first come first served for about RMB400 ($60) in out of pocket costs. Other countries are following suit; the Philippines says it will vaccinate up to 9 million people with Sinovac's product. The Brazilian state of Sao Paolo is conducting advanced human trials for Sinovac and intends to buy the vaccine once approved."

China New Local Covid-19 Cases Fall to One-month Low as Xinjiang Cluster Recedes from News18.com. Asymptomatic cases test positive for the virus, but China does not classify them as confirmed cases until they show clinical symptoms of infection such as a fever or a cough. In mainland China, the total number of new confirmed infections stood at 19 on Aug. 15, including so-called imported cases involving travellers arriving from abroad. That compares with 22 a day earlier.

China touts Wuhan lockdown as key to taming COVID-19 spread by Nathan VanderKlippe, Globe and Mail, Asia Correspondent, Beijing, March 13, 2020. "Lin Ming, a doctor at Xiehe Hospital in Wuhan, recounted how he wore adult diapers during the most stressful times to carry him through long shifts in layers of protective equipment. In the darkest days for Wuhan, 'the number of newly added infection cases reached 10,000 per day,' he said. On Friday [March 13, 2020], Wuhan reported just five new cases. 'That's a huge improvement.'"

China's coronavirus gamble: What should we learn from Beijing's draconian response to Covid-19? By Frank Snowden, New York Daily News, March 15, 2020. "China was Ground Zero for the coronavirus disease now spreading across the planet. Beginning in December and probably before, the virus 'spilled over' from its natural reservoir, likely among bats, and infected its first known human hosts - probably in the context of a 'wet' market located at Wuhan in central China. Undetected by the authorities, the virus moved into the community, unleashing an epidemic that now spans the globe, but is ebbing in China itself.

A second epidemic, however, is following closely behind COVID-19 - a surge of belief in the capacity of dictatorships to deal decisively with medical emergencies ... This second epidemic proclaims the need to follow the 'Chinese model' by taking a sledgehammer to the crisis, closing borders and locking down enormous populations and vast swaths of territory."

China's Xi pledges $2 billion to help fight coronavirus by Evelyn Cheng, CNBC, May 18, 2020. Chinese President Xi Jinping said Monday [May 18, 2020] his country will provide $2 billion over two years to help other countries respond to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. He was speaking via video conferencing at the opening ceremony of a key World Health Organization (WHO) meeting. Xi added that when a vaccine for the disease is available, it "will be made a global public good."

Data from China shows the majority of people with Covid-19 only suffer mild symptoms, then recover by Ivana Kottasová and Henrik Pettersson, CNN, March 20, 2020.

Wuhan to Test All 11 Million Residents for COVID-19 by Dominique Mosbergen, HuffPost, May 13, 2020. "Wuhan will test all 11 million residents for the new coronavirus over a 10-day period, Chinese and international media reported on May 12, 2020. The ambitious testing effort - which officials have referred to as '10 days of mass battle' against the virus - was spurred by the discovery of a new cluster of COVID-19 cases in the city, where officials had previously celebrated a month without any new infections, NPR (National Public Radio) reported."

7. COVID-in Other Countries

Australia
Brazil
Germany
India
Iran
Italy
Japan
Luxembourg
Mexico
New Zealand
Russia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom

AUSTRALIA

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Australia from Wikipedia.

* Australia - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Australia orders more COVID-19 vaccines for total of 135 million doses by Renju Jose and Colin Packham, Sydney Reuters, 4 Nov. 2020. "The Australian government has agreed to purchase two more COVID-19 vaccines in development, beefing up the country's prospective arsenal against the pandemic to 135 million doses as it aims to complete a mass inoculation programme within months."

Australia's active COVID-19 cases hit four-month low by Colin Packham, Sydney Reuters, 30 Oct. 2020. "Australian officials said on Friday that there were just under 200 active cases of COVID-19 in the country, the lowest number in more than four months and well down from a peak of just over 8,000 in mid-August ... Australia has recorded just over 27,500 novel coronavirus infections, far fewer than many other developed countries."

How did Australia flatten its coronavirus curve? Restrictions easing as infection rate continues to fall by Nectar Gan, CNN, May 1, 2020.

Canada and Australia: A tale of two COVID-19 responses by Joel Negin, Shitji Kapur and Nancy Baxter, Contributors to the Globe and Mail, April 18, 2020. "Both countries discovered their first cases on January 25, 2020. As of Friday [April 17, 2020] afternoon, Australia has slightly more than 6,500 cases - Canada has more than 30,000. Over the last week, Australia added 383 new cases while Canada has added around 1,000 to its total every day. There have been about 66 coronavirus-related deaths in Australia, while Canada has lost nearly 1,200 people to the disease ... In comparison, self-isolation for return travellers was only 'advised' in Canada until March 25, 2020 ... In Australia, community transmission has only accounted for about 10 per cent of COVID-19 cases; in Canada this rate is close to 75 per cent ..."

BRAZIL

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Brazil from Wikipedia.

* Brazil - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters

Bolsonaro's health minister quits, deepening Brazil coronavirus crisis. Reporting by Lisandra Paraguassu, Writing by Anthony Boadle, Editing by Brad Haynes, Franklin Paul, Dan Grebler and Marguerita Choy, Reuters, Yahoo! News, May 15, 2020. "This week, Brazil passed Germany and France in coronavirus cases, with more than 200,000 confirmed diagnoses by Thursday [May 14, 2020], when the health ministry reported 844 new deaths, bringing the death toll to 13,933. Congressional opposition leader Alessandro Molon warned that Brazil was heading toward a public health catastrophe and said the president should be impeached. 'Bolsonaro does not want a technical minister, he wants someone who agrees with his ideological insanity, like ending social distancing and using chloroquine,' Molon, a lawmaker from the Brazilian Socialist Party, said in a statement. Bolsonaro's handling of the coronavirus has been widely criticized globally as he has minimized the severity of the disease and told Brazilians to ignore quarantine restrictions."

Brazil has the most confirmed COVID-19 cases in Latin America. 'So what?' says President Bolsonaro by Chris Arsenault, CBC News, May 2, 2020. Brazilian doctors say political dysfunction is making epidemic worse. With infection rates spiralling, some big city ICUs on the verge of collapse and COVID-19 spreading into remote corners of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil's president earlier this week responded to the pandemic's growing ferocity with a simple quip: 'So what?' From describing coronavirus as a 'little flu,' to urging Brazilians to ignore the 'hysteria' and get back to work, President Jair Bolsonaro has said Latin America's most populous country must 'face the virus like a man, damn it, not like a little boy.'

Jimena Blanco, a political risk analyst from consultancy Verisk Maplecroft, says: 'With the president denying the threat of the pandemic, you get a lot of people defying lockdown measures.' Brazil has more than 87,000 confirmed coronavirus cases and more than 6,000 deaths, according to figures from Johns Hopkins University, giving it the highest number of cases in Latin America [May 2, 2020]. The actual number of cases is at least five times higher due to a lack of effective testing, especially in rural areas, said Dr. Natalia Pasternak Taschner, a medical researcher at the Institute of Biomedical Sciences in Sao Paulo."

GERMANY

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Germany from Wikipedia.

* Germany - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

COVID-19 in Germany: Explaining a Low Death Rate by Thomas Klikauer, Counterpunch.org, March 31, 2020.

Merkel shines in handling of Germany's coronavirus crisis from France24, March 29, 2020.

Germany's coronavirus infection rate 'R' drops below 1 to 0.94 after it rose on Monday as lockdown restrictions were eased by Alice Cachis and Chris Pleasance, Mailonline, Dailymail.co.uk, May 12, 2020.

Germany plunges into recession as coronavirus hits - posts sharpest GDP contraction since global financial crisis by Shalini Nagarajan, MarketInsider, May 15, 2020. The German economy plunged into recession as the country's federal statistics authority released grim data showing a contraction of 2.2% on Friday, May 15, 2020. The economy's decline reflects its biggest quarterly drop since the global financial crisis and its second largest fall since German unification. Germany is the latest country in Europe to enter recession during the coronavirus pandemic. Recently, the UK posted a first-quarter contraction of 2.2%. France and Spain shrank by 5.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The eurozone economy fell by its "sharpest on record" at 3.8%. "The corona pandemic hits the German economy hard. Although the spread of the coronavirus did not have a major effect on the economic performance in January and February, the impact of the pandemic is serious for the 1st quarter of 2020," Destatis, the country's data authority, said in its statement.

INDIA

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in India from Wikipedia.

* India - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Everything we know about the Indian COVID-19 variant so far by Grace C Roberts, Research Fellow in Virology, Queen's University, Belfast, World Economic Forum, Apr. 21, 2021. "Coronavirus cases have risen sharply in India and a new COVID-19 variant has emerged there called B1617.
Scientists think the B1617 variant is more contagious, because of a mutation it carries called L452R, which helps the virus’s spike protein unlock our cells.
B1617 also carries a second mutation, called E484Q, that changes the spike protein, which may make the virus less susceptible to pre-existing antibodies.
The main concern with the Indian variant is the potential for reduced vaccine efficacy."

IRAN

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Iran from Wikipedia.

* Iran - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

U.S. and Iran Need a Coronavirus Peace Plan by Dianne Feinstein, Opinion, Bloomberg, May 14, 2020. Why are both sides inching toward war during a pandemic? "Donald Trump administration's approach to Iran ... increasingly lacks any clear policy or overarching strategy. The administration is at times threatening and at times conciliatory, giving Iran little sense of what actions the president will take. This could inadvertently lead us to war, and neither the U.S. nor Iran can afford to engage in hostilities that distract us from the pandemic.

Iran reports 2,102 new virus cases, highest in over month by Amir Havasi, AFP, Yahoo! News, May 14, 2020. Health ministry spokesman Kianoush Jahanpour said 2,102 new cases were confirmed across the country in the past 24 hours, bringing the overall total to 116,635. That figure is the highest Iran has announced for a single day since April 6. Jahanpour said the virus had claimed another 48 lives over the same period, raising the overall death toll to 6,902. The southwestern province of Khuzestan remained "red" - the top level of Iran's colour-coded risk scale.

ITALY

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Italy from Wikipedia.

* Italy - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Italy's Daily Coronavirus Death Toll and New Cases Dip by Reuters, Wire Service Content, U.S. News, May 15, 2020. Rome (Reuters) - Deaths from the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy fell to 242 on Friday [May 15, 2020], against 262 the day before, the Civil Protection Agency said, while the daily tally of new cases dipped to 789 from 992 on Thursday [May 14, 2020]. The total death toll since the outbreak came to light on Feb. 21 now stands at 31,610 the agency said, the third highest in the world after those of the United States and Britain.

JAPAN

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Japan from Wikipedia.

* Japan - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Japanese island suffering second wave of coronavirus after lifting lockdown too early by Julian Ryall, The Telegraph, Apr 29, 2020.

Japan's Economic Recovery to Be Modest After Sharp Coronavirus-Led Contraction: Reuters Poll by Kaori Kaneko, Reuters, Wire Service Content, U.S. News, May 15, 2020. "While the government lifted the state of emergency in large parts of the country on Thursday [May 14, 2020], big cities like Tokyo will keep restrictions in place in a sign of persistent economic weakness lasting many more months. Analysts polled by Reuters expected Japan's economy to shrink an annualized 22.0% in the second quarter, which would be the biggest decline on record, after an expected decline of around 4.5% last quarter. The May 7-14 poll of over 30 economists also found the economy would rebound 7.7% in the third quarter and 6.1% in the fourth."

LUXEMBOURG

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Luxembourg from Wikipedia.

* Luxembourg - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Preparations for the distribution of masks to the entire population in Luxembourg: COVID-19 Pandemic Diary, 19 April 2020 from Alert Online, 19 Apr. 2020. "... distribution tomorrow, 20 April 2020, of 3.5 million masks to the entire population and companies of the country."

Mask Distribution Begins in Luxembourg by Duncan Roberts, Editor in Chief, News, Current Affairs, Delano.lu, 17 Apr. 2020. "Local communes will be distributing masks for individuals, sending packs of 5 masks per person to households by post ... The government is also setting up a distribution programme for businesses. Priority is being given to companies in the construction and crafts sector that are able to restart work on Monday. The Luxembourg Army has set up a drive-in distribution point at the airport’s Parking E car park, where crafts companies can collect their masks upon presentation of their craftsman's card or business licence ..."

MEXICO

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Mexico from Wikipedia.

* Mexico - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Dozens of medical workers have been attacked in Mexico amid coronavirus fears by Matt Rivers and Natalie Gallón, CNN, April 23, 2020. "The types of attacks vary but include nurses and doctors being struck in the face and scalding liquid thrown onto their bodies. Authorities say the attacks are likely motivated by rumors that medical personnel are responsible for spreading the virus throughout Mexico ... 'These attacks show the lack of education, culture, as well as the ignorance of people,' said Dr. Patricia Maldonado, a doctor who works at a hospital designated to treat Covid-19 patients in Guadalajara."

Border wall construction plows through southwestern US undeterred by COVID-19 by Quinn Owen, ABC News, May 13, 2020. In meetings with U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials in the southwest, Secretary of Homeland Security Chad Wolf said the wall was more essential than ever in the fight against coronavirus. "It allows them to move resources to other areas of the border that are very difficult to control," Wolf said told reporters Wednesday [May 13, 2020] in Tucson, Arizona. Approximately 50 miles of barriers have been built since the end of February, when the first deaths linked to the coronavirus were reported in the U.S.

NEW ZEALAND

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in New Zealand from Wikipedia.

* New Zealand - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

How New Zealand 'eliminated' COVID-19 after weeks of lockdown by Julia Hollingsworth, CNN Digital, CTV World News, April 28, 2020.

New Zealand eliminates COVID-19 by Sophie Cousins, The Lancet, May 9, 2020. "An aggressive approach has enabled New Zealand to end community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 ... New Zealand recorded its first day of no new cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) early this week ... [As of May 9, 2020,] New Zealand had recorded fewer than 1500 confirmed cases of COVID-19, and 20 deaths. On March 23, a month after the country had recorded its first case, New Zealand committed to an elimination strategy. A few days later, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced a strict national lockdown when it only had 102 cases and zero deaths. Her swift decision making won international praise, including from WHO."

Why New Zealand's Coronavirus Elimination Strategy Is Unlikely to Work in Most Other Places by Amy Gunia, Time, April 28, 2020.

With a smiling face, New Zealand eliminates coronavirus epidemic successfully; Here's how by Vinay B.S., International Business Times, May 11, 2020. New Zealand eliminated the spread of coronavirus by using elimination approach along with keeping people in a positive frame of mind. "Michael Baker, advisor of the Government's coronavirus response, who is also a professor from the University of Otago's department of public health, Wellington said that full lockdown including school and non-essential workplace closures along with banning social gatherings while restricting travel helped New Zealand in COVID-19 elimination. Saying that it was a right decision, Baker added, 'we had to go hard.' Two key benefits of the elimination strategy was having few cases and fewer deaths, enabling getting back to businesses, according to Baker ... Essentials were running during the lockdown such as managing borders along with contact tracing, testing, and surveillance.

Siouxsie Wiles, head of the Bioluminescent Superbugs Lab at the University of Auckland, said that the frame of mind of the general population was kept positive, contrary to other countries where there was a negative and fearful mind frame. 'We don't want the public to feel like they are being lied to,' he says while explaining 'Elimination' which meant - in epidemiological terms - bringing cases down to 'zero or near zero in a geographical location.'"

Comment from a former New Zealand prime minister, Helen Clark: "Economies can recover, the dead can't."

RUSSIA

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Russia from Wikipedia.

* Russia - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Russia Seeks to Register First Covid-19 Vaccine in August by Thomas Grove, Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2020. Country has tested soldiers, shortened trial times to be first to create a vaccine.

Russia's coronavirus case tally nears 840,000 by Gleb Stolyarov, WORLD NEWSJULY 31, 2020from MOSCOW (Reuters), July 31, 2020. Russia reported 5,482 new cases of the novel coronavirus on Friday [July 31, 2020], pushing its national tally to 839,981, the world's fourth largest caseload. Officials said 161 people had died in the last 24 hours, bringing the official death toll to 13,963.

SPAIN

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Spain from Wikipedia.

* Spain - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Spain Quarantines Overseas Travellers as Coronavirus Death Toll Pace Slows by Elena Rodriguez and Graham Keeley, Reuters, Wire Service Content, May 15, 2020. Madrid (Reuters) - Spain imposed a quarantine on incoming overseas passengers on Friday [May 15, 2020] and added new travel restrictions to prevent the spread of the coronavirus as the country's daily death toll falls. The measures were imposed as new fatalities fell to 138 on Friday from more than 200 the day before. The daily toll has been falling steadily since reaching a peak of 950 in early April. Authorities say a strict lockdown and the travel restrictions have helped curb the contagion. The number of cases rose on Friday to 230,183, although the antibody testing of a sample of 60,000 people across Spain suggested that as many as 2.3 million have had the disease.

SWEDEN

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Sweden from Wikipedia.

* Sweden - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Sweden Has Become the World's Cautionary Tale by Peter S. Goodman, New York Times, Jul 8, 2020. "Ever since the coronavirus emerged in Europe, Sweden has captured international attention by conducting an unorthodox, open-air experiment. It has allowed the world to examine what happens in a pandemic when a government allows life to carry on largely unhindered. This is what has happened: Not only have thousands more people died than in neighboring countries that imposed lockdowns, but Sweden's economy has fared little better. 'They literally gained nothing,' said Jacob F. Kirkegaard, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. 'It's a self-inflicted wound, and they have no economic gains.'"

Sweden's Covid-19 expert comes under fire for appearing to ask whether a higher death rate in old people was a fair price to pay for herd immunity by Sophie Tanno, Mailonline, 18 Aug. 2020. Sweden's Covid-19 expert Anders Tegnell under fire over herd immunity emails. Tegnell appears to ask if higher death rate for older people could be acceptable as a price to pay for herd immunity.

UNITED KINGDOM (UK)

* 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom from Wikipedia.

* United Kingdom - latest statistics for coronavirus COVID-19 disease from Reuters.

Coronavirus cases in the UK: daily updated statistics from GOV.UK.

UK's COVID-19 death toll tops 40,000, worst in Europe by Andy Bruce, World News, Reuters, May 12, 2020. London (Reuters) - The United Kingdom's COVID-19 death toll now exceeds 40,000, by far the worst yet reported in Europe, raising more questions about Prime Minister Boris Johnson's handling of the coronavirus crisis. The data came a day after Johnson set out a gradual plan to get Britain back to work, including advice on wearing home-made face coverings - though his attempt to lift the coronavirus lockdown prompted confusion. The leaders of the devolved nations - Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland - said that advice given by Johnson only applied to England. They told people to stay at home still. Such a high UK death toll increases the pressure on Johnson. Opposition parties say he was too slow to impose a lockdown, too slow to introduce mass testing and too slow to get enough protective equipment to hospitals. The data painted a grim picture in care homes, which have been especially hard hit by the virus ... Care homes now account for a third of all COVID-19 deaths in England and Wales. (Note: 82% of Canada's COVID-19 deaths have been in long-term care).

8. COVID-19 Videos

VIDEOS Related to COVID-19:

5 things China did right to contain COVID-19.YouTube video, 6:06 min. Published by CGTN, 1. Lockdown in 3 days. 2. Emergency hospital in ten days. 3. Self-quarantine for 14 days. 4. Control of daily activities. 5. Work from home.

6 Steps to Prevent COVID-19. YouTube video, 1:54 min. Published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), March 13, 2020.

10 Things You Can Do to Manage COVID-19 at Home presented in American Sign Language by Amy E. Peterson, M.Ed. YouTube video, 1:51 min. ASL Video Series. Published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), March 23, 2020.

Americans Hate Wearing Masks - It's a Century-Old Public Health Problem | NBC News. YouTube video, 5:39 min. Published by NBC News, 20 July 2020. "The anti-mask movement in America goes all the way back to the 1918-1919 Flu Pandemic. Meanwhile, Japan adapted to mask-wearing quickly, avoiding today's mass COVID-19 deaths."

Cops drag a furious man out of a school board meeting. YouTube video, 3:33 min. Published by KonaSilat, 16 Sep 2020. Video posted earlier by J.P. Skelly on Facebook, 14 Sep 2020. See also Cops drag anti-masker out of South Dakota school board meeting. YouTube video, 1:29 min. Commentary published by Worldwide News, 16 Sep 2020. "The man, identified as Reed Bender, was asked repeatedly to wear a mask at the Mitchell Board of Education meeting Monday [14 Sep 2020] before cops were called to the scene, local newspaper the Mitchell Republic reported ... 'You're going to have to drag me out.'"

CDC Adviser: 'It's a lot easier to wear a mask than a ventilator' from MSNBC. "Dr. William Schaffner, infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, stresses the importance of wearing a mask to prevent the spread of coronavirus because, 'the mask has no politics and neither does the virus'."

Coronavirus: How the deadly epidemic sparked a global emergency | Four Corners. YouTube video, 45:51 min. Published by ABC News In-depth, Feb. 24, 2020. "Wuhan - a city more populous than London or New York - placed in 'lockdown' following the outbreak of the new and deadly coronavirus. In China, more than two thousand people have died, with tens of thousands more infected, and authorities are resorting to extreme measures to try to halt the contagion."

Coronavirus in China | DW Documentary. YouTube video, 28.28 min. Published by DW Documentary, March 17, 2020. "For weeks now China has been in lockdown because of the new coronavirus. Journalist Sebastien Le Belzic who works in Beijing has been living in quarantine at home with his family. China is taking drastic measures in a bid to contain the spread of coronavirus. New rules are springing up on a daily basis and the government depends on loyal party members to enforce these measures at grassroots level ... [Has intermittent ads].

'COVID-19 Is a Delirium Factory' by Emily Buder, Annalise Pasztor, and Vishakha Darbha, Video, The Atlantic, May 8, 2020. ICU Delirium, A Waking Nightmare for COVIC-19 Patients, 9:46 min. In a new documentary from The Atlantic, coronavirus survivors describe frightening experiences in the intensive-care unit. "Many ICU patients experience delusions related to their deaths, often characterized by harrowing scenarios involving torture or assault ... While the neuroscientific cause of delirium is poorly understood, its onset is likely due to a concatenation of factors, including hypoxia - oxygen starvation of the brain - and the use of sedatives ...

The recent trend in critical care has been to minimize sedatives as much as possible. Doctors try to avoid benzodiazepines, a class of sedatives that is known to be particularly deliriogenic. But widespread medication shortages have rendered this impossible. On top of that, many COVID-19 patients require prolonged ventilation, which means they need to be sedated for longer, and often more heavily ..."

HOW COVID-19 KILLS - I'm a Surgeon - And Why We Can't Save You. YouTube video, 34:47 min. Published by Duc C. Vuong, March 23, 2020. Dr. Duc Vuong explains how coronavirus kills its victims.

How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) & COVID-19 Treatment. YouTube video, 11:04 min. Published by MedCram on Jan. 28, 2020. How COVID-19 causes fatalities from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by pulmonologist and critical care specialist Dr. Seheult of https://www.medcram.com.

How coronavirus (COVID-19) spread day by day. YouTube video, 11.46 min. Published by Channel 4 News, Feb. 12, 2020. This video traces the outbreak day by day from the end of 2019 through to February 2020, following its path from patient zero to cases in the UK, France and the USA - and what might happen next.

How Does COVID-19 Affect the Body? YouTube video, 5:14 min. Published by Neural Academy on Feb. 26, 2020.

How the UK failed COVID-19 testing whilst Germany and South Korea succeed. YouTube video, 3:34 min. Published by The Sun, April 4, 2020. Matthew Lesh is the Head of Research at the Adam Smith Institute.

How to Don and Doff an N-95 Mask. Video: 2:59 min. Published by RegisterdNurseRN.com. How to Don (Put on) and Doff (Take off) an N-95 Mask. N95 Respirator Mask: How to Wear an N-95 Mask. This video demonstrates the proper technique for how to wear an N-95 mask.

How to Make a Face Mask:

Surgeon General shows how to make face masks. YouTube video, 0:45 min. Published by WSLS 10, April 4, 2020. Level of difficulty: Very easy.

3 DIY FACE MASKS | No Sewing Required!. YouTube video, 4:23 min. Published by Survival Know How, April 3, 2020. "3 DIY (Do It Yourself) face masks that do not require sewing. These homemade masks are similar to N95 Respirators or surgical masks by protecting your nose & month but do not provide the same filter capabilities. All of these are easy to make in less than a minute and with household items. I go over how to make a Paper Towel Mask, a T-shirt Face Mask, and a Bandana and Rubberband Mask." Level of difficulty: Low. [Note: Whenever staples are used, you may wish to put a small piece of tape over the sharp edges of the staples to avoid getting your face scratched.]

A Doctor Explains How to Make the Safest Face Mask. YouTube video, 14:55 min. Published by Dr. Ryan Southworth, March 22, 2020. "This is a safe face mask that if built properly should be donated to your local emergency services. It utilizes a HEPA filter, which is much, much better than a cotton mask." Directions to Make Mask. Mask Pattern. The doctor's wife skilfully shows you how to use a Hoover® Type Y HEPA Bag to make this high quality mask. Level of difficulty: High. Need sewing machine.

How to make an Olson Mask (includes printable Mouth and Cheek Pattern) as made by Clayton Skousen and Rose Hedges, UnityPoint, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Materials needed and detailed sewing instructions provided. Note: Make sure that auto-fit is NOT selected when printing to ensure pattern measurements are not altered. Level of difficulty: Medium to High. Can sew by hand or use sewing machine. Elastic will be applied at the hospital to allow for different sizes of masks to be made. If you are making this mask for yourself, 0.3 micron filters may be inserted in the pocket.

The lockdown: One month in Wuhan. YouTube video, 33:14 min. Published by CGTN Documentary, Feb. 28, 2020. "At 10 a.m. on January 23, Wuhan went into lockdown. This was done to stop a deadly virus from spreading further across the nation. It was one day before Chinese New Year's Eve, a major travel day for people planning to return home for the holidays. This documentary is dedicated to all those who've been battling tirelessly against the COVID-19 virus in order to keep the epidemic at bay. Their efforts in safeguarding humanity from the virus will always be remembered."

Journalist goes undercover at "wet markets", where the Coronavirus started | 60 Minutes Australia. YouTube video, 27:30 min. Published by #60MinutesAustralia, Mar. 8, 2020. "Professor Gabriel Leung, who led the fight against the SARS virus, believes 60 per cent of the world's population could become infected with COVID-19 and that up to 45 million people might die from it."

COVID-19 | Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics. YouTube video, 50:38 min. Published by Ninja Nerd Science on March 16, 2020.

The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do. YouTube video, 8:34 min. Published by Kurzgesagt - In a Nutshell, March 19, 2020.

How wildlife trade is linked to coronavirus. YouTube video, 8:48 min. Published by Vox, March 19, 2020."And why the disease first appeared in China. NOTE: As our expert Peter Li points out in the video, 'The majority of the people in China do not eat wildlife animals. Those people who consume these wildlife animals are the rich and the powerful - a small minority.' This video explains how the people of China are themselves victims of the conditions that led to coronavirus. The virus is affecting many different countries and cultures, and there is never justification for xenophobia or racism. As of early March 2020, a new coronavirus, called COVID-19, is in more than 70 countries and has killed more than 3,100 people, the vast majority in China. That's where the virus emerged back in December 2019."

Doctor Explains COVID-19 (Coronavirus). YouTube video, 14:44 min. Published by Violin MD on March 21, 2020.

COVID-19 Animation: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus? YouTube video, 7:27 min. Published by Nucleus Medical Mediaon, March 28, 2020.

President Trump and Melania Trump test positive for Covid-19. Video, 10:14 min. Published by CNN, 2 Oct. 2020. "Tonight, @FLOTUS [First Lady of the United States] and I tested positive for COVID-19. We will begin our quarantine and recovery process immediately. We will get through this TOGETHER!" Trump tweeted shortly before 1 am Friday [2 Oct. 2020]. In a memo issued to reporters around 1 a.m. ET, the President's physician, Navy Commander Dr. Sean Conley, wrote he received confirmation of the positive tests on Thursday evening. "The President and First Lady are both well at this time, and they plan to remain at home within the White House during their convalescence," Conley wrote.

What Coronavirus Symptoms Look Like, Day By Day. YouTube video, 5:18 min. Published by Science Insider, March 18, 2020.

Where Do New Viruses Come From? YouTube video, 10:09 min. Published by Stated Clearly, Feb. 27, 2020. Learn how viruses differ from other microbes, why most viruses can only infect one type of host organism, and how viruses evolve to infect new hosts.

9. COVID-19 Google Web Albums

COVID-19 Coronavirus and World News Web Albums: News, statistics, charts, photos and videos from January 2020 to present.

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