A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Autobiography of Carl Kaas

A Member of the Dutch Underground in World War II

Chapter 107: Albert and Julia

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Albert, from the Ojibwa tribe on the Whitefish reserve, who left me stranded in the wilderness, became our next door neighbor. We lived in a log cabin; he and his wife and two boys in a shiplap and tar paper cabin.

Albert did not want to live on the reserve. He said, "I want to become white man." A Treaty Indian who lived on the reserve got money from the government, but Albert was not interested. Doc gave him a cabin because he was the number one guide. About a year later, Albert told me very proudly, "I am a white man now." "Congratulations, now you can go to the beer parlor and start drinking." "Huh, no, no." Alcoholic beverages were taboo for Indians. It seemed they went crazy if they drank only a few.

They were pretty good neighbors. After the wolf hunting season was over, I never saw Albert any more until spring. When I saw him again in the spring, I asked, "Where have you been all winter? Were you sick or something?" "Huh, no, I fired the stove, not good, burn on front, and freeze on back."

Julia and the two boys did what had to be done: they went in the bush to cut firewood and dragged it home, then sawed it in wood stove size. They went down to the lake to chop a hole in the ice, then got drinking water, and did the shopping.

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Related resources:

Pamphlet # 28: Myths and Facts About First Nations Peoples from University of Manitoba, September 2008. "Myth: Indians get all kinds of government money. Fact: Treaty People get a $5 Treaty once per year, in cash. This is the same amount they got under the Treaties, over one hundred years ago. There has been no adjustment for inflation."

The 'drunken Indian' stereotype and social healing from CBC News, Posted: Oct 22, 2008.

The stereotype of the drunken Indian by âpihtawikosisân, 2012. "... it's time to finally address a foundational stereotype of the drunken Indian, hopped up on the White Man's firewater. (Actually, in Cree it's iskotêwâpoy, which is more like 'fiery liquid'.)"

Indigenous or Aboriginal, Which Is Correct? Posted by Bob Joseph, Jan 5, 2016, ICTINC. Note: "Indigenous Corporate Training Inc. (ICT) was founded in 2002 by Bob Joseph, a Gwawaenuk Nation member who is a certified master trainer, with a background in business administration and former associate professor at Royal Roads University. The ICT mission is to provide training to get everyone Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples® in their day-to-day jobs and lives."

"A collective noun for the original inhabitants of Canada has been a challenge ever since Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. Believing he had landed in India it followed that the existing population would be referred to as 'Indians'. Despite it being blatantly incorrect it became the de facto collective noun. Initially 'Indians' included First Nations, Inuit and Metis.

Usage of the word Indian in Canada is decreasing due to its incorrect origin and connections to colonizer policies and departments such as the Indian Act, the Indian Department (precursor to INAC), Indian Agent, Indian residential schools etc. Some communities continue to use Indian in their tribal name - Osoyoos Indian Band is an example. Some individuals still refer to themselves as Indians, but in terms of a collective noun it is rarely used. 'Native' was also formerly a common term but is considered uncivil and rarely used in respectful conversations."

Native Americans in the United States from Wikipedia. "Native Americans are often known as Indians or American Indians. The term Native American was introduced in the United States in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India, and to avoid negative stereotypes associated with the term Indian. Many indigenous Americans, however, prefer the term American Indian and many tribes include the word Indian in their formal title.

Indian from Canadian Encyclopedia. "Indian is a term that is now considered outdated and offensive, but has been used historically to identify Indigenous people in South, Central and North America. In Canada, the term is used most often to refer to legally defined identities.

The term Indian is believed to have originated with Christopher Columbus, who used the word to describe the Indigenous peoples in the Americas. In the 1400s, Columbus believed he had reached Asia when, in fact, he had arrived in the Caribbean. The term has since persisted, and has been used indiscriminately to refer to all Indigenous peoples on the North, Central and South American continents, with the exception of the Inuit in the Canadian Arctic, Greenland and Alaska. Outside legal definitions in Canada, the term Indian is no longer used to refer to Indigenous peoples.

Since the 1980s, many terms have been used instead of Indian, including Native peoples, First Peoples, Aboriginal peoples, First Nations and Indigenous peoples. These are catch-all phrases that hold different meanings for different people. Generally speaking, the terms Native and Aboriginal have been rejected by many Indigenous groups who claim that these are European and colonial terms that are too broadly defined. As a result, some use the term First Nations. However, this term excludes Inuit and Métis peoples.

In recent years, the term Indigenous has been adopted by various governments and Indigenous associations in Canada to refer to First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. However, there is no single, widely accepted term that is used to identify First Peoples in Canada. Many Indigenous peoples in Canada therefore, self-identify using traditional terms from their own languages. For example, the term Haudenosaunee replaces the outdated French term Iroquois to refer to the peoples of the Six Nations. Similarly, Anishinaabe replaces Ojibwa and Siksika replaces Blackfoot."

What's in a Name: Indian, Native, Aboriginal or Indigenous? By Don Marks, Opinion for CBC News. Posted: Oct 02, 2014. "The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs (AMC) has been joined by Anishinabek of Ontario, representing 42 First Nations, in rejecting the name 'Aboriginal' ...

The name Indian supposedly originated because Christopher Columbus got lost when he was looking for India and mistakenly called the inhabitants he met here Indians ...

In Canada, it is quite frowned upon to use the name Indian in casual conversation, but we still have organizations with names like the Manitoba Indian Education Association. Next door, we have the Saskatchewan Indian Gaming Authority and Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and Saskatchewan Indian Equity Foundation. The name just won't go away ...

The term 'First Nations' has been used to describe the Ojibway, Dene, Dakota, Metis and Ininew (Cree) people in Manitoba and has found long-term acceptability ..."

Indigenous Peoples Terminology Guidelines for Usage. Posted by Bob Joseph on Jul 20, 2016, from ICTINC (Indigenous Corporate Training Inc). Guideline for Terms: Aboriginal Peoples, First Nation(s), Indian, Indigenous Peoples, Inuit, Métis Peoples, Native.

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