A Research Guide for Students by I Lee
The Diary of Carl Kaas

A World War II Member of the Dutch Onderground (Underground)

Carl Kaas (1919-2015) was an active member of the Dutch Onderground (Underground) in the Dutch Resistance Movement during World War II. This is a memoir of his experiences before, during and after the Second World War.

Originally written in Dutch, translated by Carl Kaas into English. Edited by I Lee for grammar or spelling only as needed.

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Clarification from Carl Kaas on distinguishing the Dutch "onderground" from the Dutch "onder duikers". According to Carl, the "Underground", or internal fighting force, consisted of people who busied themselves with harrassing the enemy, like spying, radio contact with England, blowing up rail lines and bridges, robbing coupon centers, dealing with illegal food supplies, interrupting telephone lines, etc. "Onder duikers" (underdivers) were people who were wanted by the Germans, the escapees, railway employees who went on strike and others who escaped from forced labor, and of course, the Jews. By these definitions, Carl Kaas was a Member of the Dutch "Underground" and not an "Onder duiker".

"Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation during World War II can be mainly characterized by its prominent non-violence, summitting in over 300,000 people in hiding, tended to by some 60,000 illegal landlords and caretakers. It developed relatively slowly, but also its counterintelligence, domestic sabotage, and communications networks provided key support to Allied forces beginning in 1944 and continuing until the Netherlands was fully liberated." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

See also:
The Dutch Resistance from History Learning Site. "The Dutch resistance movement came about because of two simple facts - outrage that their country had been invaded and sheer horror at what happened to the Dutch Jews. Holland had swiftly fallen as a result of the onslaught of Blitzkrieg in 1940. There were many in Nazi Germany, including Joseph Goebbels, who had hoped that many Dutch people would absorb National Socialism into their culture. In this they were wrong. The Dutch rallied around their exiled royal family and the Dutch resistance was to provide the Allies with valuable intelligence information."

Dutch Resistance Museum. "From 14 May 1940 to 5 May 1945, the Netherlands were occupied by Nazi Germany. Almost every Dutch person was affected by the consequences of the occupation. The choices and dilemmas facing the population became more far-reaching. How did Dutch people respond to the increasing oppression of the occupying power? Who took up resistance? Why, and in what ways?"

May 10, 1940 Holland on May 10, 1940
July 1943 Beppie van de Beek, 8 years old, Amsterdam
Early 1944 Thou Shalt Not Steal, Except . . . ATOS in 1944
Feb. - Apr. 1944 Air Raid of Nijmegen and Dropping Splinter Bombs (Splitterbombe)
Apr. - Sept. 1944 Ack-Ack, D-Day, White Phosphorus (WP) Bombs, NSB, Despised Women, Schutzstaffel (SS), and Mad Tuesday
Sept. 17, 1944 Tom the Resistor
1973-1996 Life of Carl Kaas and Family - Finding a Home
1998 Carl's Personal Philosophy on Guns
May 20, 2001 A Bit of Carl's Background
November 2008 A Day at the Beach in Curacao
2009 Why Canada?
September 22, 2010 How I Met My Spouse
December 29, 2013 Bike Accident 11 August 2012 and Life with Leonie

For greater details of the life story of Carl Kaas in his own words, see AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF CARL KAAS.

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