A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 6. Plagiarism:
How to Avoid It

Translate this page to another language of your choice:

To translate a block of text or web page, click Bing Translate or Google Translate

Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia - Free Ency
The Web This Site Only
Site Search by freefindfreefind
Useful Links 1
Useful Links 2

Links to related pages:
1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)

According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the unauthorized use of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own" (508).

"If you steal from one author, it's plagiarism; if you steal from many, it's research."
This is an example of a paraprosdokian. Based on quote from Wilson Mizner:
"If you copy from one author, it's plagiarism. If you copy from two, it's research."

To avoid plagiarism, all students must document sources properly using Footnotes, Endnotes, or Parenthetical References, and must write a Bibliography, References, or Works Cited page and place it at the end of the research paper to list the sources used. Of the three ways to document sources - Footnotes, Endnotes, and Parenthetical References, the simplest is using Parenthetical References, sometimes referred to as Parenthetical Documentation or Parenthetical Citations.

Verify which type of documentation is preferred by your teacher. Most word processors have superscript, Footnote and Endnote capability. If you are required to use Footnotes or Endnotes, it is well worth the effort to master this feature on the computer a few days before your paper is due.

If you use Parenthetical References you only need to put a short reference enclosed in parentheses immediately after the citation, then list the sources cited in your Bibliography, Works Cited or References page at the end of your paper. See Chapter 9 for Parenthetical References Examples as well as Parenthetical References Sample Page.

If you use Footnote references, you must have numerically superscripted Footnote references at the foot of the same page where your citations are located, plus you must add a Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page at the end of your paper unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Footnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Footnotes, and Footnotes - Sample Page.

If you use Endnote references, your citation within the text of your paper is the same as your Footnote citation, but you must list your Endnote references at the end of your paper in superscripted numerical order on a separate page entitled Endnotes. You must still add a Bibliography, Works Cited or References page after your Endnotes page unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Endnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Endnotes, and Endnotes - Sample Page.

Do not be tempted to get someone else to write your research paper, hand in the same essay to two or more different teachers, or purchase instant essays from the Web. Do not download information from CD-ROMs or someone else's original work off the Internet and directly incorporate such information into your essay without paraphrasing and acknowledging its source. Apart from being unethical, dishonest, and learning nothing in the process, your teacher probably knows you and your writing style too well for you to plagiarize successfully. Most secondary schools, colleges, and universities take a dim view at plagiarism which is becoming more rampant with prevalent use of the Internet. Technology has made it too easy for students to search and click for an essay and simply pay with a valid credit card for an instant download online. Consequences may be severe when students are caught plagiarizing. What is more, detection services now exist such as Plagiarism Checker by Grammarly, Turnitin, and Pagly that are capable of catching culprits guilty of plagiarism.

A page entitled Works Cited, References, or Bibliography at the end of your paper is an absolute MUST for any serious research paper.

For further information on plagiarism, check out the following sites:

8 Most Common Types of Plagiarism to Stay Away from! From Enago, May 20, 2018.

Academic Integrity from National University.

Academic Integrity. Guide for Students from University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
   - What is Academic Integrity?
   - What is plagiarism?
   - How do I avoid plagiarism?
   - What is referencing?
   - Why should I reference?
   - Achieving good academic practice.
   - Glossary. Including definitions of Annotated bibliography, Bibliography, Citation (in-text), Collusion, Common knowledge, Endnotes, Footnotes, Paraphrase, Plagiarism, Quote, Reference, Reference list (also called works cited), Secondary citation, Source, Summary.

Academic Integrity from College of the Liberal Arts, Penn State University. Resources to aid both faculty and students in understanding and properly engaging the College’s academic integrity policy and procedures.

Academic Integrity Tutorial from Noreen Reale Falcone Library, Le Moyne College.

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers by Professor Robert A. Harris, Vanguard University of Southern California.

Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism from The Graduate Centre, City University of New York.

Avoiding Plagiarism from Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. "Plagiarism is a form of fraud. You plagiarize if you present other writers' words or ideas as your own."

Avoiding Plagiarism. Handout from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL), West Lafayette, IN. See also: Writing a Research Paper: Plagiarism, Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.

Avoiding Plagiarism from the Writer's Handbook, University of Wisconsin.

Best Plagiarism Checker & Proofreader. Grammarly is an automated proofreader and plagiarism checker.It makes sure everything you type is easy to read, effective, and mistake-free.

Cheating 101: Paper Mills and You by Margaret Fain and Peggy Bates. How to locate Paper Mills, detect plagiarized papers, track down suspicious papers, and combat plagiarism.

Some of the new paper mills are much smarter. They have real writers writing original essays for you which plagiarism software is unable to track down as suspicious plagiarized papers. However, you may have to pay a hefty price for it. If your teachers or professors know you well, they might suspect that you didn't write the paper yourself. Some examples of newer paper mills:
 - PapersMart.net - research paper service is designed especially for those who need original research papers.
 - Paper Writing Pros - Your paper writing service.
 - Write My Essayz and get 24/7 online help with your college essays.
 - How to do your homework
 - Dissertation Help Service. Hire a personal manager and get high quality help with your dissertation.

Cheats are having a field day on campus. "When a quarter of students plagiarise, universities need to start taking tougher action," says Frank Furedi, Professor of Sociology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK.

College Writing: Use Resources Ethically & Legally from George Fox University.

Copyright and Fair Use from Stanford University Libraries. Contents: Copyright FAQs, Fair Use, The Public Domain, Introduction to the Permissions Process, Website Permissions, Academic and Educational Permissions, Releases, and Copyright Research.

Copyright Issues on the Internet from Marketing, Australia.

Essay mill from Wikipedia. "An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud."

Examples of Plagiarism from Princeton University. "Verbatim plagiarism, or unacknowledged direct quotation. Lifting selected passages and phrases without proper acknowledgment. Paraphrasing the text while maintaining the basic paragraph and sentence structure. A note on plagiarism in computer programs."

Exceptions & Limitations: Classroom Use, Fair Use, and more from University of Minnesota Libraries. The Classroom Use Exemption: "Copyright law places a high value on educational uses. The Classroom Use Exemption (17 U.S.C. Article 110(1)) only applies in very limited situations, but where it does apply, it gives some pretty clear rights. In-class viewing is a public performance, but it's permitted under the Classroom Use Exemption. To qualify for this exemption, you must: be in a classroom ('or similar place devoted to instruction'). Be there in person, engaged in face-to-face teaching activities. Be at a nonprofit educational institution."

Facts about Plagiarism from Plagiarism.org. Plagiarism definitions, Tips on avoiding plagiarism.

Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials from eHow. Fair Use Section of Copyright Law by Holly Keeran, eHow Contributor.

Free Online Plagiarism Checker - Duplichecker.com. Free plagiarism software for students, teachers, seo community.

Free Plagiarism Checker - an online plagiarism detector from ITS - ITS Education Asia, Pathways to Learning. ITS FREE plagiarism checker is a simple, quick and free way to check ANY content for plagiarism. Simply either type or cut and paste text from any document into the free plagiarism checker, then click: "Check for Duplicate!"
Chinese Version of Free Plagiarism Checker is also available.

Free Plagiarism Checker from Write My Term Papers.

Free Plagiarism Checker from WriteMyPaperHub.com.

George Mason University Honor System and Code. Honor Code and Plagiarism statement. What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism and the Internet, Copyright Resources.

Honor CodePlagiarism Detection, Technologies to Detect Plagiarism, and Plagiarism Plagiarism in Academic Writing: How to Identify and Avoid It from Stanford University.

How Not to Plagiarize from University of Toronto.

How to avoid plagiarism from Writing Center, University of Wisconsin.

How to Recognize Plagiarism: Tutorials and Tests from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. What Is Plagiarism at Indiana University? A short quiz with immediate feedback, and How to Recognize Plagiarism.

Introduction Plagiarism Tutorial Library Research Guides from Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY.

MyDropBox.com uses leading technology to detect and prevent cases of Internet plagiarism.

Plagiarism from Harvard System of Referencing Guide, Anglia Ruskin University Library, Cambridge & Chelmsford, UK.

Plagiarism from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Plagiarism and Academic Honesty - Policy from University of Sydney, Australia. (Printout in English or Chinese).

Plagiarism and the Web from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).

Plagiarism.com. Glatt Plagiarism Services. A tutorial software program designed to teach students about plagiarism, how to avoid it, and how to detect it in their writing.

A Plagiarism Guide for Students from WhoIsHostingThis.com.

Plagiarism Guides from Australian Help. "In academic writing, it is considered plagiarism to draw any idea or any language from someone else without adequately crediting that source in your paper." Topics covered include: Verbatim plagiarism, Mosaic plagiarism, Inadequate paraphrase, Uncited paraphrase, Uncited quotations, Using material from another student's work.

Plagiarism in American Colleges and Universities from Academic Plagiarism.

Plagiarism Thread. Posted on Reddit by u/ritthrowawaylolol, Feb. 13, 2018.

Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It from University of West Florida.

Plagiarism.org Learning Center. What Is Plagiarism? Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism FAQs: Copyright laws, Public domain, Common knowledge, Fair use, Punishment for plagiarism, and more. What Is Citation? Plagiarism and the Internet.

Policy on Academic Dishonesty from Trinity Western University.

Preventing and Recognizing Plagiarism and Cheating: A Guide for College Teachers and Students from EducationDegree.com. Featuring contributions from a university professor and undergraduate students. "This guide is designed to help both students and teachers understand what constitutes plagiarism and learn how to detect and prevent it. It also explores cheating - which is an umbrella term that includes plagiarism - and strategies for combatting it." Includes: Fast Facts About Plagiarism and Cheating in College.

Preventing Plagiarism from National University.

The Reality and Solution of College Plagiarism from Health Informatics, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). It is important to understand what is plagiarism and how to avoid it. In this latest infographic, learn what types of plagiarism are commonly committed by students, and how you can avoid falling into the trap. Not enough college students are aware of the very severe and long-lasting consequences of plagiarism, and some are not even aware when they are plagiarizing. This guide provides a comprehensive, easily-digestible overview of plagiarism to help give students and educators context for this serious issue.

A Statement on Plagiarism from Indiana University.

Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism from National University.

Student Guide to Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism in the Classroom and Online by Matt Ashare, OnlineEducation.com. What Is Plagiarism? Definitions of Plagiarism. Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism in Online Education. Tools for Detecting Plagiarism. Examples of Plagiarism. Penalties for Plagiarism. How to Avoid Plagiarism. Plagiarism Resources and Safe Practices for Students. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices for Faculty. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices in Online Education. Plagiarism in the News.

Synthesis: Using the Work of Others from University of Maine at Farmington Writing Center / Mantor Library Anti-Plagiarism Website.

Tips and Tools: Plagiarism. This handout explains what plagiarism is and outlines steps students can follow to avoid plagiarizing.

Turnitin.com - software that aims to put a stop to digital plagiarism. Provides information on plagiarism prevention.

Understanding Plagiarism and Its Dangers by Jacleen Charbonneau, Freelance Writer, CollegeXpress.

University-wide statement on plagiarism from University of Cambridge.

What Can We Do to Curb Student Cheating? Article by Sharon Cromwell, Education World® .

What Is Plagiarism from Academic Integrity at MIT: A Handbook for Students. "Plagiarism occurs when you use another's words, ideas, assertions, data, or figures and do not acknowledge that you have done so. You must always acknowledge your sources by citing them. In this way, you have the right to use another's creative output by giving that person credit for the work s/he has done."

Understanding Plagiarism from Concordia University. How to avoid plagiarism? Why cite your sources? What counts as 'other people's ideas'? What doesn't count? Direct quotations. Paraphrasing. Academic integrity. List of offences.

What Is Plagiarism from University of Sydney, Australia.

You Quote It, You Note It! An interactive tutorial on Plagiarism, from Vaughan Memorial Library, Acadia University. What you will learn in this tutorial: The difference between paraphrasing and quoting, and how to do both properly. When to cite, what to cite, and how to cite. Even if it's unintentional, plagiarism is still a serious academic offence. What's documenting? Things that are considered "common knowledge" do not need to be cited, and more.

Plagiarism checker

Plagiarism multichecker