A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 6. Plagiarism:
How to Avoid It

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1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)

According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the unauthorized use of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own" (508).

"If you steal from one author, it's plagiarism; if you steal from many, it's research."
This is an example of a paraprosdokian. Based on quote from Wilson Mizner:
"If you copy from one author, it's plagiarism. If you copy from two, it's research."

To avoid plagiarism, all students must document sources properly using Footnotes, Endnotes, or Parenthetical References, and must write a Bibliography, References, or Works Cited page and place it at the end of the research paper to list the sources used. Of the three ways to document sources - Footnotes, Endnotes, and Parenthetical References, the simplest is using Parenthetical References, sometimes referred to as Parenthetical Documentation or Parenthetical Citations.

Verify which type of documentation is preferred by your teacher. Most word processors have superscript, Footnote and Endnote capability. If you are required to use Footnotes or Endnotes, it is well worth the effort to master this feature on the computer a few days before your paper is due.

If you use Parenthetical References you only need to put a short reference enclosed in parentheses immediately after the citation, then list the sources cited in your Bibliography, Works Cited or References page at the end of your paper. See Chapter 9 for Parenthetical References Examples as well as Parenthetical References Sample Page.

If you use Footnote references, you must have numerically superscripted Footnote references at the foot of the same page where your citations are located, plus you must add a Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page at the end of your paper unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Footnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Footnotes, and Footnotes - Sample Page.

If you use Endnote references, your citation within the text of your paper is the same as your Footnote citation, but you must list your Endnote references at the end of your paper in superscripted numerical order on a separate page entitled Endnotes. You must still add a Bibliography, Works Cited or References page after your Endnotes page unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Endnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Endnotes, and Endnotes - Sample Page.

Do not be tempted to get someone else to write your research paper, hand in the same essay to two or more different teachers, or purchase instant essays from the Web. Do not download information from CD-ROMs or someone else's original work off the Internet and directly incorporate such information into your essay without paraphrasing and acknowledging its source. Apart from being unethical, dishonest, and learning nothing in the process, your teacher probably knows you and your writing style too well for you to plagiarize successfully. Most secondary schools, colleges, and universities take a dim view at plagiarism which is becoming more rampant with prevalent use of the Internet. Technology has made it too easy for students to search and click for an essay and simply pay with a valid credit card for an instant download online. Consequences may be severe when students are caught plagiarizing. What is more, detection services now exist such as Plagiarism Checker by Grammarly, Turnitin, and Pagly that are capable of catching culprits guilty of plagiarism.

A page entitled Works Cited, References, or Bibliography at the end of your paper is an absolute MUST for any serious research paper.

For further information on plagiarism, check out the following sites:

8 Most Common Types of Plagiarism to Stay Away from! From Enago, May 20, 2018.

Academic Integrity from National University.

Academic Integrity. Guide for Students from University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
   - What is Academic Integrity?
   - What is plagiarism?
   - How do I avoid plagiarism?
   - What is referencing?
   - Why should I reference?
   - Achieving good academic practice.
   - Glossary. Including definitions of Annotated bibliography, Bibliography, Citation (in-text), Collusion, Common knowledge, Endnotes, Footnotes, Paraphrase, Plagiarism, Quote, Reference, Reference list (also called works cited), Secondary citation, Source, Summary.

Academic Integrity from College of the Liberal Arts, Penn State University. Resources to aid both faculty and students in understanding and properly engaging the College’s academic integrity policy and procedures.

Academic Integrity Tutorial from Noreen Reale Falcone Library, Le Moyne College.

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers by Professor Robert A. Harris, Vanguard University of Southern California.

Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism from The Graduate Centre, City University of New York. PDF.

Avoiding Plagiarism from Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. "Plagiarism is a form of fraud. You plagiarize if you present other writers' words or ideas as your own."

Avoiding Plagiarism. Handout from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL), West Lafayette, IN. See also: Writing a Research Paper: Plagiarism, Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.

Avoiding Plagiarism from the Writer's Handbook, University of Wisconsin.

Best Plagiarism Checker & Proofreader. Grammarly is an automated proofreader and plagiarism checker. It makes sure everything you type is easy to read, effective, and mistake-free.

Cheating 101: Paper Mills and You - Internet Paper Mills from Kimbel Library, Sep. 2003. List is provided as a convenience for faculty, in order for them to be aware of the vast variety of resources out on the Internet that are tempting their students.
How to locate Paper Mills, detect plagiarized papers, track down suspicious papers, and combat plagiarism.

Some of the new paper mills are much smarter. They have real writers writing original essays for you which plagiarism software is unable to track down as suspicious plagiarized papers. However, you may have to pay a hefty price for it. If your teachers or professors know you well, they might suspect that you didn't write the paper yourself. Some examples of newer paper mills:
 - PapersMart.net - research paper service is designed especially for those who need original research papers.
 - Paper Writing Pros - Your paper writing service.
 - Write My Essayz and get 24/7 online help with your college essays.
 - How to do your homework
 - Dissertation Help Service. Hire a personal manager and get high quality help with your dissertation.

Plagiarism and Programming: How to Code without Plagiarizing by Lisa Heard, Independent Technology Author, IT Briefcase, Dec 19, 2019. Plagiarism is fast becoming a concern among computer science students. Spread of Plagiarism in Code and How Best to Avoid it in your Own Code ... being original is the best way to avoid cheating in coding.

Copyright and Fair Use from Stanford University Libraries. Contents: Copyright FAQs, Fair Use, The Public Domain, Introduction to the Permissions Process, Website Permissions, Academic and Educational Permissions, Releases, and Copyright Research.

Copyright Issues on the Internet from Marketing, Australia.

Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net by Lisa Renard, Educational Leadership, Dec. 1999 - Jan. 2020, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Essay mill from Wikipedia. "An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud."

Ethical use of information means using information ethically and properly. There are two ways that deal with this concept: They are the issues of plagiarism and copyright.
What Is a Citation? & Why Cite? How to Accurately Cite Your Sources! From Buxton Library at Paradise Valley Community College (PVCC), Phoenix, AZ.

Everything College Students Need to Know About Plagiarism by Ryan Nelson, GradLime, Nov. 15, 2017.

Examples of Plagiarism included in Academic Integrity, from Princeton University. "Verbatim plagiarism, or unacknowledged direct quotation. Lifting selected passages and phrases without proper acknowledgment. Paraphrasing the text while maintaining the basic paragraph and sentence structure. A note on plagiarism in computer programs."

Exceptions & Limitations: Classroom Use, Fair Use, and more from University of Minnesota Libraries. The Classroom Use Exemption: "Copyright law places a high value on educational uses. The Classroom Use Exemption (17 U.S.C. Article 110(1)) only applies in very limited situations, but where it does apply, it gives some pretty clear rights. In-class viewing is a public performance, but it's permitted under the Classroom Use Exemption. To qualify for this exemption, you must: be in a classroom ('or similar place devoted to instruction'). Be there in person, engaged in face-to-face teaching activities. Be at a nonprofit educational institution."

Facts about Plagiarism from Plagiarism.org. Plagiarism definitions, Tips on avoiding plagiarism.

Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials from eHow. Fair Use Section of Copyright Law by Holly Keeran, eHow Contributor.

Free Plagiarism Checker from Dupli Checker. Free plagiarism software for students, teachers, seo community.

Free Plagiarism Checker - an online plagiarism detector from ITS - ITS Education Asia, Pathways to Learning. ITS FREE plagiarism checker is a simple, quick and free way to check ANY content for plagiarism. Simply either type or cut and paste text from any document into the free plagiarism checker, then click: "Check for Duplicate!"
Chinese Version of Free Plagiarism Checker is also available.

Free Plagiarism Checker from Write My Term Papers.

George Mason University Honor System and Code. Honor Code and Plagiarism statement. What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism and the Internet, Copyright Resources.

Honor CodePlagiarism Detection, Technologies to Detect Plagiarism, and Plagiarism Plagiarism in Academic Writing: How to Identify and Avoid It from Stanford University.

How Not to Plagiarize from University of Toronto.

How to avoid plagiarism from Writing Center, University of Wisconsin.

How to Avoid Plagiarism by Debbie Lopez, Verified by John Ross, JD, CPA, Test Prep Insight, Apr 12, 2023. Detailed guide covering the most common types of plagiarism and best practices to avoid them.

How to Recognize Plagiarism: Tutorials and Tests from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. What Is Plagiarism at Indiana University? A short quiz with immediate feedback, and Take Certification Tests. To pass a Certification Test, you must answer at least 9 out of 10 questions correctly within 40 minutes.

MyDropBox.com. Using Dropbox Plagiarism Detection enables you to monitor your dropbox folders and identify potential cases of plagiarism by automatically comparing submissions to an online database of original content.

Plagiarism from Harvard System of Referencing Guide, Anglia Ruskin University Library, Cambridge & Chelmsford, UK.

Plagiarism from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Plagiarism and Academic Integrity from University of the Fraser Valley.
Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty Adapted from the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook, 9th ed..

Academic Integrity at Bow Valley College. What is academic dishonesty and plagiarism, How to avoid plagiarism, Why you need to cite sources. Principles of Academic Honesty & Integrity: According to The International Center for Academic Integrity, academic integrity is "a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility."
Educational Resources from International Center for Academic Integrity.

Model Code of Academic Integrity by Gary Pavela, 24 Journal of College and University Law, 97-118 (Summer 1997). "Academic dishonesty is a serious offense at the University because it undermines the bonds of trust and honesty between members of the community and defrauds those who may eventually depend upon our knowledge and integrity. Such dishonesty consists of:
1. CHEATING - Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information or study aids in any academic exercise.
2. FABRICATION - Intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise.
3. FACILITATING ACADEMIC DISHONESTY - Intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another to violate any provision of this Code.
4. PLAGIARISM - Intentionally or knowingly representing the words or ideas of another as one's own in any academic exercise.

Code of Academic Conduct from Office of Student Support and Judicial Affairs (OSSJA), University of California, Davis campus (UCDAVIS). Contents include: Plagiarism -
Taking credit for any work created by another person; work includes, but is not limited to books, articles, experimental methodology or results, compositions, images, lectures, computer programs, internet postings.
Copying any work belonging to another person without indicating that the information is copied and properly citing the source of the work.
Using another person's presentation of ideas without putting such work in your own words or form and/or failing to provide proper citation.
Creating false citations that do not correspond to the information you have used.
Representing your previous work as if it is new work.

Academic Integrity Policy from University Secretariat, McMaster University.

Academic Integrity Policy from Douglas College.

Student Academic Integrity Policy from Simon Fraser University.

Academic Dishonesty and Discipline from Algonquin College.

Academic Integrity Guidelines for Computer Science from Whitman College.

Academic Integrity Policy from Seneca College.

The Dangers of Plagiarism: It's Not Worth Risking Your Educationby Maria Andreina Fernandez, College Raptor, Dec 22, 2022.

Plagiarism and the Web from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).

Plagiarism.com. Glatt Plagiarism Services. A tutorial software program designed to teach students about plagiarism, how to avoid it, and how to detect it in their writing.

Plagiarism Checker from Small SEO Tools.

Plagiarism Guides from Australian Help. "In academic writing, it is considered plagiarism to draw any idea or any language from someone else without adequately crediting that source in your paper." Topics covered include: Verbatim plagiarism, Mosaic plagiarism, Inadequate paraphrase, Uncited paraphrase, Uncited quotations, Using material from another student's work.

Plagiarism in American Colleges and Universities from Academic Plagiarism.

Plagiarism Thread. Posted on Reddit by u/ritthrowawaylolol, Feb. 13, 2018.

Plagiarism Tutorial from Simon Fraser University, Apr. 19, 2021. "This popular tutorial is designed to help SFU students understand what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid committing it. Working through the tutorial, students will learn to recognize different types of plagiarism and be introduced to various practical skills - citing, note-taking, quoting, and paraphrasing - that will assist them in the writing process. The tutorial takes about 30 minutes to complete, and includes several quizzes to check students' understanding."

Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It from University of West Florida.

Plagiarism.org Learning Center. What Is Plagiarism? Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism FAQs: Copyright laws, Public domain, Common knowledge, Fair use, Punishment for plagiarism, and more. What Is Citation? Plagiarism and the Internet.

Practical Insights: Preventing Plagiarism from Concord Law School, Purdue University Global. Article discusses the various types of plagiarism, how to paraphrase correctly, and actionable tips every student can follow. Resource also includes references to internet tools that students can use to avoid plagiarism in their writing.

Preventing and Recognizing Plagiarism and Cheating: A Guide for College Teachers and Students from EducationDegree.com. Featuring contributions from a university professor and undergraduate students. "This guide is designed to help both students and teachers understand what constitutes plagiarism and learn how to detect and prevent it. It also explores cheating - which is an umbrella term that includes plagiarism - and strategies for combatting it." Includes: Fast Facts About Plagiarism and Cheating in College.

Preventing Plagiarism: A Guide for Students and Educators blog from Adobe Communications Team, Nov 24, 2021.

Preventing Plagiarism from National University.

A Statement on Plagiarism from Indiana University.

Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism from National University.

Student Guide to Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism in the Classroom and Online by Matt Ashare, OnlineEducation.com. What Is Plagiarism? Definitions of Plagiarism. Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism in Online Education. Tools for Detecting Plagiarism. Examples of Plagiarism. Penalties for Plagiarism. How to Avoid Plagiarism. Plagiarism Resources and Safe Practices for Students. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices for Faculty. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices in Online Education. Plagiarism in the News.

Synthesis: What Is Synthesis from University of Manitoba. Synthesis means to combine a number of different pieces into a whole. Synthesis is about concisely summarizing and linking different sources in order to review the literature on a topic, make recommendations, and connect your practice to the research.

Tips and Tools: Plagiarism. This handout explains what plagiarism is and outlines steps students can follow to avoid plagiarizing.

Turnitin.com - software that aims to put a stop to digital plagiarism. Provides information on plagiarism prevention.

The Ultimate Plagiarism Guide: How to Detect and Prevent It from UPrinting. What is Plagiarism? Different Forms of Plagiarism. Does Plagiarism Really Matter? Tips to Avoid Committing Plagiarism Accidentally. A Guide to Avoiding Plagiarism. Tips for Teachers. 20 Tools You Can Use to Detect Plagiarism. Plagiarism Resources and Guides for Students.

University-wide statement on plagiarism from University of Cambridge.

What Can We Do to Curb Student Cheating? Article by Sharon Cromwell, Education World® .

What Is Plagiarism from Academic Integrity at MIT: A Handbook for Students. "Plagiarism occurs when you use another's words, ideas, assertions, data, or figures and do not acknowledge that you have done so. You must always acknowledge your sources by citing them. In this way, you have the right to use another's creative output by giving that person credit for the work s/he has done."

What to Do If You're Charged with College Plagiarism by Kelci Lynn Lucier, ThoughtCo, Feb. 17, 2019.

Understanding Plagiarism from Concordia University. How to avoid plagiarism? Why cite your sources? What counts as 'other people's ideas'? What doesn't count? Direct quotations. Paraphrasing. Academic integrity. List of offences.

What Is Plagiarism from University of Sydney, Australia.

You Quote It, You Note It! An interactive tutorial on Plagiarism, from Vaughan Memorial Library, Acadia University. What you will learn in this tutorial: The difference between paraphrasing and quoting, and how to do both properly. When to cite, what to cite, and how to cite. Even if it's unintentional, plagiarism is still a serious academic offence. What's documenting? Things that are considered "common knowledge" do not need to be cited, and more.