Wikipedia - Free Ency
Useful Links 2
Links to related pages:
1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
12. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed. Sample Page
13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
20. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
22. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)
For documentation in APA style, please see links at APA Style: American Psychological Association, or refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
For a detailed treatment on how to write a bibliography in MLA style with many more examples, please use the official MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition
References to MLA Handbook 6th ed. will soon be updated to 7th ed. on this site.
MLA Handbook 6th edition:
See also: MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition by Modern Language Association
The MLA Pocket Handbook: Rules for Format & Documentation by Jill Rossiter
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.
Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2" (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details.
When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.
1. Book with one author or editor
2. Book with two authors or editors
3. Book with three authors or editors
4. Book with more than three authors or editors
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
6. Book with no author or editor stated. See also Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
17. Book, movie or film review
18. CD-ROM, DVD See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip
19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
20. Definition from a dictionary
21. Film, movie
22. Government publication
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
26. Letter, editorial
27. Map, chart
28. Musical composition
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
32. Radio, Television
33. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
34. Software on floppy disk
35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
36. Unpublished dissertations, theses
Baker, Tim, ed. Golf Tips from the Pros. Cincinnati, OH: David, 2006.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is
and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. Spec. illus. ed. New York: Broadway, 2004.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of
4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.
Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
Kunkel, Edward J. Pharaoh's Pump. Warren, OH: Peg's Hobby Print Shop, 1962.
Note: The above citation is for a privately published or self-published book.
Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.
Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed.
Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.
---. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
The above two books are by the same author. You need not repeat the author's name. Use three dashes and a period in place of author's name.
Schecter, I.J. Slices: Observations from the Wrong Side of the Fairway.
Shakespeare, William. Taming of the
Shrew. Ed. John Crowther. New York: Spark, 2004.
---. Taming of the Shrew. Ed. Roma Gill. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1990.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)
Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.
(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)
Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)
Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.
(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)
Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and
Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon
of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for
Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.
Hall, John Whitney, and John Grayson Kirk, eds. History of the World:
to the Present Day. North Dighton, MA: World, 2005.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can't Be
2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.
Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer's Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors:
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the
Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d'Abadie. The Power of Focus for
Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.
Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let's Go:
Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin's, 1998.
Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815.
9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words
Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds.
Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd
ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris
A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.
O'Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999.
Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.
Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by
Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and
That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA:
The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita Kimber and
New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed.
Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989.
Although not essential for simple citation purposes, supplementary information may be added to the above citation for clarification:
Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Trans. Paul Foulkes. Ed.
Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1989. Trans. of Les Jours de L'histoire: 14-18
La Premiere Guerre Mondiale. Paris: Casterman, 1986.
The original text of the above work was written in French by Annie Brown, Lionel Dumarche, Phillipe Glorennec, Jean-Marcel Humbert and Jean-Pierre Verney.
Fox, Charles James. "Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength." What
Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
Wilcox, Robert K. "Flying Blind." Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
Comp. and ed. James O'Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers' Tales, 1999. 211-22.
"Nazi Party." New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.
"Tajikistan." World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.
Kibby, Michael W. "Dyslexia." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.
Midge, T. "Powwows." Encyclopedia of North American Indians.
Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Marshall, 1997.
"100 Years of Dust and Glory." Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
"China Goes Soft on the Baby Talk." Harold Sun [Victoria] 6 Aug. 2007: 22.
"Coca-Cola Paid CEO $32 Million U.S. in 2007." Toronto Star 4 Mar. 2008: B2.
"E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.
"I, Barack Hussein Obama, Do Repeatedly Swear ..." Globe and Mail [Toronto]
22 Jan. 2009: A14.
"Iraq Ratifies Chemical Weapons Ban." Daytona Beach News-Journal
15 Jan. 2009: 12A.
"McDonald's Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food."
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.
"Palestinians with Foreign Passports Flee Gaza." Toronto Star 3 Jan. 2009: AA3.
"Pope Names New Bishop for Da Nang, Vietnam." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: A6.
An article in a scholarly journal may be treated somewhat differently:
Gould, Fred, Krisztian Magori, and Yunxin Huang. "Genetic
Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases." American Scientist 94.3 (2006): 238-246.
Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks
Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.
The above citation shows: Author's name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).
Cave, Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle." Daily
25 Jan. 2001: 36.
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. "Shaken and Stirred."
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq." Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.
Daubs, Katie. "Credit Valley and Trillium Hospitals to Merge." Toronto Star 8 Apr. 2011: GT3.
Friedman, Thomas. "Forget General Motors - Our Whole Nation Needs Makeover." Orlando
Sentinel 28 Dec. 2008: A19.
Hall, Mimi. "Obama: 'We've Begun the Work of Remaking America.' USA Today
30 Apr. 2009:
Hillyard, Lindsey. "Teaching Dream Dims as Florida Schools Gasp for Life." Daytona Beach
News-Journal 15 Jan 2009: 4A.
Hosenball, Mark, and Evan Thomas. "Hold the Phone." Newsweek 22 May 2006: 22+.
Kher, Unmesh. "Outsourcing Your Heart." Time Canadian ed. 29 May 2006: 26-29.
King, Ronette. "Foundations Feeling Sting of Nation's Economic Slump: Endowment Values
Move with Market." Times-Picayune [New Orleans] 16 Nov. 2008: E1+.
Martin, Patrick. "Inaugural Phone Call Creates a Stir in Muslim World." Globe and Mail [Toronto]
22 Jan. 2009: A13.
Mather, Victoria. "In Tiger Country." Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
Fall 2004: 102-111.
Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. "The Mystery of Brown Dwarf
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Mouline, Imad. "Browser Wars Fallout: Will Your Website Survive?" Website Magazine
Nov. 2008: 38-40.
Petroski, Henry. "Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale." American
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. "Carmakers' Challenge: Green,
Machines." Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.
Prestipino, Peter. "Click Fraud: Mitigating the Risk." Website May 2007: 20-21.
Schofield, Alan, and Jonathaan Leake. "Vaccine Lab Link to Cattle Disease."
Australian [Sydney] 6 Aug. 2007: 11.
Siegel, Rachel. "Roberta McCain Will Bury Her Son: At 106, Mother of Senator [John McCain]
Has Lived a Life Full of Adventure." National Post [Toronto] 29 Aug. 2018: A10.
Steed, Judy. "Drugged-Out Seniors a Prescription for Disaster." Toronto Star
11 Nov. 2008: A1+.
Thomas, Bob. "Ricarho Montalban: 1920-2009: Mexican-Born Actor Was Movie, TV Star."
Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 2A.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. "Life among the Ruins." Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.
Waldie, Paul, and Andy Hoffman. "Pizza Pizza Partners Fall Out over
Slice of the Pie."
Globe and Mail [Toronto] 19 June 2006: B5.
Warne, Kate. "Set Realistic Expectations." Investment Insight. St. Louis, MO:
Edward Jones Newsletter, Oct.-Nov. 2007: 1-2.
Warner, Gene. "Finally a Graduate - at 77." Buffalo News 14 May 2006: B1-2.
Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. "Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs." American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
Wolanski, Eric, et al. "Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs."
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
Zhang, Jane, John M. Killer, and Lauren Etter. "Be Ready for Spilled
Cloning Decision." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 4 Jan. 2008: A2.
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers
(and Managers) of the World Unite."
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.
"Facts about Hand Santizers as Public Concerns over the Swine Flu Increase."
Johnson & Johnson. Advertisement. 1 May 2009 <http://www.purell.com/page.jhtml?
"Thank You Drosophila melanogaster." Mount Sinai Hospital. Advertisement.
Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 4 Jan. 2008: A16.
Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.
Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software.
Creager, Angela N.H. "Crystallizing a Life in Science." Rev. of
Rosalind Franklin: The
Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.
Dillon, Brenda. "Hana's Suitcase." Rev. of Hana's Suitcase, by Karen
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.
Foley, Margaret. "Measured Deception." Rev. of The Measure of
All Things: The
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. "Chinese Torture - at Five." Rev. of The Binding Chair,
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. "Huck's Ironic Circle." Rev. of The Adventures
Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
Howell, Peter. "All Things Come to She Who Waits." Rev. of Avenue Montaigne
(Orchestra Seats), dir. Danièle Thompson. Toronto Star 20 Apr. 2007: D6.
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
Neier, Aryeh. "Hero." Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia:
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.
Onstad, Katrina. "A Life of Pain and Paint." Rev. of Frida,
dir. Julie Taymor. National
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Pigliucci, Massimo. "Have We Solved Darwin's Dilemma?" Rev. of
The Plausibility of Life:
Resolving Darwin's Dilemma, by Marc W. Kirschner and John C. Gerhart.
American Scientist May-June 2006: 272-274.
Redekop, Magdalene. "The Importance of Being Mennonite." Rev. of A Complicated
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.
Simic, Charles. "The Image Hunter." Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master
of Dreams, by
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.
Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.
LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. "Racism and the Landfill." Chronicle-Herald
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.
A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.
YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
Landler, Mark. "Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times,
Late Ed. - Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
"Mug." Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary
English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.
August Rush: An Incredible Journey Moving at the Speed of Sound. Dir. Kristen Sheridan.
Prod. Richard Barton Lewis. Perf. Freddie Highmore, Keri Russell, Jonathan Rhys Meyers,
Terrence Howard, and Robin Williams. Warner, 2007.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by
Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim
Burton. Based on book
by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Prod. Frank
Marshall. Writ. George Lucas. Perf. Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett, Karen Allen, and
Shia LaBeouf. Paramount, 2008.
Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.
Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.
One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon,
and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.
Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Perf. Kate Winslet
and Leonardo DiCaprio. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams and Adam
Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada, 2000.
United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight
Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation
Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record.
Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.
IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2006. 27 Nov. 2006 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.
Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to Formalize
One-Child Policy." Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 9 Jan. 2008 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.
Clifford, Erin. "Review of Neuropsychology." SparkNotes. 8 Jan. 2008
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices
in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.
Marshall, Leon. "Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest."
9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 7 Jan. 2008 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
Reguly, Eric, and Greg Keenan. "Fiat to Chrysler: Cut Costs or We Walk."
15 Apr. 2009.
Globeandmail.com 15 Apr. 2009 <http://business.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/
Thomason, Larisa. "HTML Tip:
Why Valid Code Matters." Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 6 Jan. 2008 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
Gearan, Anne. "Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected." Washington Post. 8 May 2002. SIRS.
Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 28 Feb. 2008 <http://www.sirs.com>.
Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 28 Feb. 2008 = date of access. If page numbers are provided, indicate page numbers after the publication date, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.
Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12
eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Mar. 2008.
Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12
eLibrary Canada. 10 Mar. 2008. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.
Duiker, William J. "Ho Chi Minh." Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Microsoft.
10 Mar. 2008
"Ho Chi Minh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.
"Royal Shakespeare Company." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9377260>.
"Childcare Industry 'Should Welcome Men'." BBC News Online: Education. 7 June 2003.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.
"Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus." BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.
Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks
Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 10 Mar. 2008
"Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map." Map. Atlapedia Online.
Latimer Clarke. 20 Mar. 2008 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. "Congratulations!" Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 19 May 2007
Schulz, Charles. "Peanuts Collection - Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock." Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.
"TOP50 Web Design and Development Resources ." Website Magazine. Nov. 2008. 17 Nov. 2008
"Woodhull, Victoria C." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997.
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 18 Mar. 2007 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling Nov.
1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2007.
Kenrick, John. "Re: Link to Musicals101.com." E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2007.
"NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005." E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <email@example.com>.
PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." E-mail to John
10 Mar. 2008.
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 20 July 2007 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 18 May 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
Delphy, Christine. "A War for
Afghan Women?" Keynote address. 3-7 July 2002. Townsville
International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. 28 July 2007
Kao, Ivy. "Keep Spreading the Word." Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 6 Mar. 2006
Seaside Harry. "My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!" Online
posting. 29 Apr. 2007. PriusOnline.com Forum Index - Prius - Technical.
10 Oct. 2007 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.
"Gloria Steinem." Power
Quotes. Wisdom Quotes by Jone Johnson Lewis, 1995-2009.
14 Nov. 2009 <http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_power.html>.
Grieve, Chris. The Life and Times of Robert Bateman. Heartland Graphics.ca.
25 Nov. 2007. <http://canadasartists.ca/bateman/>.
The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.
O'Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. "John Wilkins." Feb. 2002. U of
Scotland. 18 May 2007 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Officer, Lawrence H. "Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and
Other Countries, 1913 -1999." Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.
Savill, R. Richard. "Jazz Age Biographies." The Jazz Age Page.
23 Oct. 2000.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.
Sullivan, Danny. "Search Engine Math." 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
18 May 2007 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.
Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. "Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?"
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 18 May 2007 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct.
"The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 18 May 2007 <http://showcase.netins.net/
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion.
Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Mar. 2008 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
Galen. On the Natural Faculties: Book Two. Trans. Arthur John Brock.
Classical Library, 1916]. Medicina Antiqua, U College London, 2004.
12 June 2007 <http://www.medicinaantiqua.org.uk/tr_GalNatFac2.html>.
Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister's Office. 31 May 2003. 10 Mar. 2008
Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16
Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 28 June 2010.
Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 15 June 2007.
Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 28 Feb. 2008.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.
Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. "Hello, He Must Be Going." Editorial. Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Full, Jerome. "Diminishing Palm Coast." Letter. Daytona Beach News-Journal
15 Jan. 2009: 4A.
Lange, Rick. "U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded." Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.
Keith, Peter G. "Global Warming Requires Global Vision."
Letter. National Post [Toronto]
26 May 2006: A17.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?"
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Patrick, E.A. "Property Investors Created Deficit: Paying for Their Greed."
Orlando Sentinel 28 Dec. 2008: A18.
Stasiulis, Ray. "Obama Has Already Turned Fear into Hope."
Letter. Toronto Star
24 Jan. 2009: AA5.
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 27 Jan. 2009.
Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord." Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 8 Mar. 2008
2007 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex Associates, 2007.
Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.
"Dallas TX." Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.
Chopin, Frédéric. Nocturne in E Flat, op. 9, no. 2.
Tchaikovsky, Piotr. Swan Lake.
Chopin, Frédéric. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.
Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art
Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia,
The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura,
Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The
By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett,
et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.
Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic
Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.
Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31.
Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The
Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York:
Park Lane, 1986. 226.
Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic
History of Art.
By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan.
Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist.
1742-51. São Roque,
Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne:
Könemann, 1998. 118.
The Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Lee. 28 July 2005.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. "Verfahren zur Nachführung eines
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie." German Patent 3943917. July 1996.
"Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous
Compounds." US Patent 5078813.
27 Sept. 1988.
Kamen, Dean L., et al. "Transportation Vehicles and Methods." US
26 Oct. 1999.
Disney's Beauty and the Beast. Dir. Lee MacDougall. Music by Alan Menken.
Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice. Book by Linda Woolverton.
Stage West, Mississauga, ON. 12 April 2008.
Disney's The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie
Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002.
The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
20 Apr. 2002.
The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by
Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.
Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.
The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.
The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.
Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television.
NBC Television Network.
WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.
"New Threat from Osama?" By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN,
13 Nov. 2002.
"New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein." By Martha Graybow.
New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
"The Nightmare Drug." By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana
The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
"UFOs: Questions & Controversy." By Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN,
18 Jan. 2008.
"U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden." AP, Washington, DC. On Your
WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, n.d.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ.,
dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone. Warner Bros.,
Mitchell, Joni. Both Sides Now. CD. Reprise Records, Time Warner.
Dist. Warner Music Canada, Scarborough, ON, 2000.
ZZ Top Afterburner. LP. Prod. Bill Ham. Songs writ. Billy Gibbons,
and Frank Beard. Houston, TX: Warner Bros., 1985.
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers.
Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón.
Based on novel
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
DVD. Warner, 2004.
Jane Austen's Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996.
Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and
Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel
Ann Brashares. Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom
The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.
State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. "The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long
Beach, California." BA
thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. "The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use." Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and
Stress. Diss. U of
Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.