A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

How to Write a Bibliography
Works Cited in MLA Style 8th Edition 2016

How to Write a Bibliography
or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed. 2003
How to Write a Bibliography
or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed. 2009
How to Write a Bibliography
or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 8th Edition, 2016
MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition

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Links to related pages:

1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
5. Content Notes and Bibliographic Notes in MLA Style, 7th ed
6. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed.
7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
8. Footnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
9. Endnotes in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
10. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 7th ed.
11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
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13. Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed. Sample Page
14. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 7th ed.
15. Works Cited, References, and Bibliography: What's the Difference? MLA Style, 6th ed.
16. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 7th ed
17. Guidelines on Writing a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in MLA Style, 6th ed.
18. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 8th Edition
19. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 7th ed.
20. How to Write a Bibliography or Works Cited Page - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
21. Works Cited in MLA Style, 8th Edition - Sample Page (Not ready)
22. Works Cited in MLA Style, 7th ed. - Sample Page
23. Works Cited in MLA Style, 6th ed. - Sample Page
24. Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)


References to MLA Handbook 7th ed. 2009 have been updated to MLA Handbook Eighth Edition 2016 on this page.

Major changes from the 7th to the 8th edition include:

1. CORE ELEMENTS
(Pay special attention to the punctuation mark used after each element. Generally, only three periods are used in each citation, with a maximum of four periods in some cases.)
Author.
Title of source.
Title of container,
Other contributors,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date,
Location.

2. ABBREVIATIONS
Editor, edited by, compiler, compiled by, director, directed by, producer, produced by, translator, translated by, and review of - are no longer abbreviated.
(Note: Title of 2016 MLA Handbook Eighth Edition is not using abbreviated 8th ed.)

3. AUTHORS
When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is given, followed by et al.

4. BOOKS AND OTHER PRINTED WORKS
Page numbers in the works-cited list are now preceded by p. or pp.
For books, the city of publication is no longer given, except in special situations.

5. JOURNALS
Issues of scholarly journals are now identified with "vol. 64, no. 1" rather than "64.1".

If an issue of a scholarly journal is dated with a month or season, the month or season is now cited along with the year.

6. ONLINE WORKS
The URL (without http:// or https://) is now given for a Web source without angle brackets.
The citing of DOIs (digital object identifiers) is preferred, if available.
Citing the date when an online work was consulted is now optional.
Placeholders for unknown information such as n.d. (no date) or n.p. (no place of publication) are no longer used. If facts missing from a work are available, they are cited in square brackets. Otherwise, omit them.

7. PUBLISHERS
Names of publishers are now given in full, except that business words like Company (Co.) are dropped. The abbreviations U, P, and UP are still used.
A forward slash (/) now separates the names of co-publishers.
When an organization is both author and publisher of a work, the organization's name is now given only once, usually as the publisher. No author is stated.

8. MISCELLANEOUS
Reference works are treated like other works and are no longer subject to exceptions.
The medium of publication is no longer stated, except when it is needed for clarity.


Useful resources:

Understanding MLA Style (8th edition, 2016 updates) by Kyle Stedman. Dr. Kyle D. Stedman is assistant professor of English at Rockford College. YouTube video, 11:20 min. Published on Jun 3, 2016."In 2016, MLA style changed again (to its 8th edition). This video uses lots of examples to show the logic of the new changes and to explore some of the most noticeable new details." Note: In citing the URL, http// or https// is to be omitted.

EasyBib a Chegg Service. Generate citations in MLA, APA & Chicago formats for your bibliography.


All Works Cited entries should be typed double-spaced. Second and subsequent lines indented.

In order to keep this Web page short and mobile friendly, SINGLE rather than DOUBLE SPACE is used here with no indentation for second and subsequent lines.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Academic Abbreviations used in works cited and in-text citations, see Section 1.6.2 of MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition


CONTENTS:

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three or more authors or editors
  4. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  5. Book with no author or editor stated
  6. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor
  7. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  8. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
  9. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
10. Reviews
11. Bible, Scripture
12. Government publication, Corporate author, Titles of laws, Legislative bills, reports and resolutions
13. Twitter, Facebook, Blogs, Email messages, PowerPoint
14. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with and without author stated:
15. Numbers, Alphabetizing numerals, Roman numerals:
16. Titles or Names of persons in a foreign language
17. Advertisements
18. Drama, Plays, Poetry
19. DVDs, CDs, Audio recording, Film, Television, Video, Speeches, Lectures, Live presentations
20. Musical composition, musical scores
21. Websites, Online citations, URL or Web address
22. Online databases, Online forums, eBooks
 

1. Book with one author or editor:

Baker, Tim, editor. Golf Tips from the Pros. David, 2006.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal and Still Killing Us. Rodale, 2003.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, editor. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from 4000 BC to the Present. White Star, 2004.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. Hyperion, 2005.

Kunkel, Edward J. Pharaoh's Pump. Peg's Hobby Print Shop, 1962.

Note: The above citation is for a privately published or self-published book.

Maltin, Leonard, editor. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, editor. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times. Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino, Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Scholastic, 1999.

---. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, 2000.

The above two books are by the same author. You need not repeat the author's name. Use three dashes and a period in place of the same author's name.

Schecter, I.J. Slices: Observations from the Wrong Side of the Fairway. Wiley, 2006.

Shakespeare, William. Taming of the Shrew. Edited by John Crowther, Spark, 2004.

---. Taming of the Shrew. Edited by Roma Gill, Oxford UP, 1990.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. Oxford UP, 1986.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. Norton, 1995.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International Environment of Business. 5th edition, West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. Revised edition, Jossey, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, editors. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal Jubilee. Rizzoli, 1999.

Hall, John Whitney, and John Grayson Kirk, editors. History of the World: Earliest Times to the Present Day. World, 2005.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can't Be Jammed. 2nd edition, Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer's Australia 2005. Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Edited by Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine, Washington Square, 1992.

3. Book with three or more authors or editors:

Example - Book by four authors:
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. Perigee, 2003.

Citation for the above book would be:
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. Perigee, 2003.

Use "et al." from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning "and others" after the first author or editor named.  

Clancy, Tom, et al. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. Putnam's, 2002.

Hewitt, Les, et al. The Power of Focus for College Students. Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., et al. editors. Let's Go: Germany 1998. St. Martin's, 1998.

Hogan, David J., et al., editors. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., et al., editors. Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd edition, Fitzhenry, 2005.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary Series for ESL. Vol. 6, Advanced Level ESL, U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.

Suzuki, David, et al. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Greystone, 2002.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

The abbreviations "comp., ed." are no longer used. In the MLA Handbook Eighth Edition, "compiler or compiled by", "editor or edited by" are spelled out in full.

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, compilers and editors. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A.D. to the Present. Barnes, 1994.

O'Reilly, James, et al., compilers and editors. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival. Travellers' Tales, 1999.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa. Compiled by Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly, Viking, 1997.

6. Book with no author or editor stated:

Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events That Shaped Our Identity. Key, 1999.

The Movie Book. Phaidon, 1999.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of Herbert Ponting, BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one or more authors, translated by another, with or without an editor:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Translated by Rita Kimber and Robert Kimber, Metropolitan, 1998.

Brown, Annie, et al. The First World War. Translated by Paul Foulkes, edited by Stewart Ross, Wayland, 1989.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. "Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength." What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue, Edited by Waller R. Newell, Harper, 2001, pp. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. "Flying Blind." Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival. Compiled and edited by James O'Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O'Reilly, Travellers' Tales, 1999, pp. 211-22.

9. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, or encyclopedia with no author stated:

"E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001, p. 4.

"FAA Rules Allow Hobbyist Drones, Not Commercial." USA Today 24 June 2014, p. 2A.

"Fake Soldier Sentenced." Toronto Star 5 Aug. 2015, p. A2.

"Google Ups Wearables Fight." Metro [Toronto], 1 Sept. 2015, p. 11.

"Hungary Putting Up Fence to Halt Migrants." Toronto Star 14 July 2015, p. A1.

"Nazi Party." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 8 June 2015, www.britannica.com/topic/Nazi-Party.

"Shaw Communications Buys Wind Mobile for $1.6 B." Toronto Star 17 Dec. 2015, p. A8.

"Tajikistan." New World Encyclopedia. 12 Nov. 2015, www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Tajikistan.

"Ukrainian Insurgents Agree to Respect Cease-Fire." USA Today  24 June 2014: 2A

10. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, or encyclopedia with one or more authors:

ARTICLE (A, An, The) - When the title of a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) begins with an article (A, An, The), the article is treated as part of the title. The article is italicized and its first letter capitalized. However, in alphabetizing the title with an article, for example: The Bourgeois Experience would be alphabetized under B rather than T.

Use "+" for pages that are not consecutive. 

Example: When numbering pages, use "70-75" if page numbers are consecutive. Use "A1+" if the article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive.

When using MLA style, note that there is no period after the month. The period in "Jan." is for the abbreviation of January.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June and July - these three months are NOT abbreviated while all other months are abbreviated: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. If the publication date is June 1, 2016, citation order will be Date Month Year: 1 June 2016.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, "Date, Month, Year" are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only "Month, Year" are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal may be treated somewhat differently:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues, vol. 58, no. 2, 17 Dec. 2002, doi: 10.1111/1540-4560.00260.

The above citation shows: Author's name, Article title (in quotes), Name of scholarly journal (italicized), Volume number, Issue number, Publication date, URL or DOI  if website. DOI is preferred if available. When citing URL, omit http:// or https://.

Andrew-Gee, Eric. "Lawyers Have Objections About Joining Paperless Digital Age." Toronto Star, 18 Apr. 2015, p. GT1.

Cave, Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle." Daily Telegraph [London], 25 Jan. 2001, p. 36.

Choo, Lily. "Celebrating the Year of the Goat" Epoch Times [Toronto], 19 - 25 Feb. 2015, p. B3.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. "Shaken and Stirred." Atlantic Monthly, Jan.-Feb. 2005, pp. 112+.

Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq." Foreign Affairs, Jan.-Feb. 2006, pp. 24+.

Dale, Daniel. "Trump's New Islamophobia." Toronto Star, 14 June 2016, p. GT8.

Dressler, Amberly. "The Acrobatics of Mobile Ad Design." Website Magazine, Sept. 2013, pp. 20-21.

The above article was published online by WebsiteMagazine.com and posted on August 1, 2013. The print edition was dated September 2013.

Dressler, Amberly. "The Acrobatics of Mobile Ad Design." WebsiteMagazine.com, 1 Aug. 2013, www.websitemagazine.com/content/blogs/posts/pages/the-acrobatics-of-mobile-ad-design.aspx.

Gould, Fred, et al. "Genetic Strategies for Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases." American Scientist, vol. 94, no. 3, May-June 2006, pp. 238-246.

Jacobs, Andrew. "China Cracks Down on Feminist Activists." National Post [Toronto], 8 Apr. 2015, p. A8.

Judkis, Maura. "Welcome to the Future, Where Robots Prepare Your Food." Toronto Star, 16 Nov. 2016, p. E8.

Kanter, James, and Andrew Higgins. "Greece Gets Deal, Avoids Eurozone Exit." Toronto Star, 14 July 2015, p. A8.

Kher, Unmesh. "Outsourcing Your Heart." Time, Canadian edition, 29 May 2006, pp. 26-29.

Kibby, Michael W. "Dyslexia." World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 edition.

Kujtan, Peter W. "Porphyria: The Vampire Disease." Mississauga News, 29-30 Oct. 2005, p. 23.

The above article online:

Kujtan, Peter W. "Porphyria: The Vampire Disease." A Research Guide for Students, Dr. Kujtan's Medical Matters, 29 Oct. 2005, www.bydewey.com/drkporphyria.html.

Marklein, Mary Beth. "FBI: 168 Trafficked Youth Saved." USA Today, 24 June 2014, p. 3A.

Mendleson, Rachel. "Framed by Forensics" Toronto Star, 14 June 2015, pp. A6-7.

Midge, T. "Powwows." Encyclopedia of North American Indians, edited by D.L. Birchfield, 11 vols., Marshall, 1997.

Pacholik, Barb. "Too Young to be Charged: Why This Boy's Killer Is Free." National Post [Toronto], 7 Apr. 2015, pp: B1+.

Philipp, Joshua. "Cheap Drones May Change the Face of Secutiry." Epoch Times [Toronto], 10-16 Nov. 2016, p. A5.

Prestipino, Peter. "Fishing for Leads: More Better Faster." websiteMagazine.com, Aug. 2013, pp. 24-29.

Plungis, Jeff, et al. "Carmakers' Challenge: Green, Mean Machines." Detroit News and Free Press, Metro edition, 12 Jan. 2003, pp. 1A+.

Schofield, Alan, and Jonathaan Leake. "Vaccine Lab Link to Cattle Disease." Australian [Sydney], 6 Aug. 2007, p. 11.

Soble, Jonathan. "Ban Against Separate Surnames Upheld." Toronto Star, 17 Dec. 2015, p. A22.

Thomas, Bob. "Ricarho Montalban: 1920-2009: Mexican-Born Actor Was Movie, TV Star." Daytona Beach News-Journal, 15 Jan. 2009, p. 2A.

Van Pelt, Deani, and Jason Clemens. "Needed: Smart Education Spending." National Post [Toronto], 8 Apr. 2015, p. FP15.

Wingfield, Nick, et al. "Google, Facebook Update Policy on Fake News Sites." Toronto Star, 16 Nov. 2016, p. B5.

Zhou, Jonathan. "$15 Trillion Plan Would Have US Run on Renewable Energy by 2050." Epoch Times, 16-22 July 2015, p. A7.

The above article online:

Zhou, Jonathan. "$15 Trillion Plan Would Have All of America on Renewable Energy by 2050." Epoch Times, 14 July 2015, www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1420782-15-trillion-plan-would-have-all-of-america-on-renewable-energy-by-2050/.

10. Reviews:

Spell out whole words and do not use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler), Arr. (Arranged), Dir. (Director, Directed).

Alexander, Bryan. "The 2014 Optimus Prime Comes Loaded with Options." Review of Transformers: Age of Extinction, directed by Michael Bay, USA Today, 24 June 2014, p. 3D.

Bendel, Joe. "A Portrait of the Artist under House Arrest." Review of Ai Weiwei: The Fake Case, by Ai Weiwei, Epoch Times  [Toronto], May 22-28, 2014, p. B1.

Creager, Angela N.H. "Crystallizing a Life in Science." Review of Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox, American Scientist, Jan.-Feb. 2003, pp. 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. "Hana's Suitcase." Review of Hana's Suitcase, by Karen Levine, Professionally Speaking, June 2003, p. 36.

Foley, Margaret. "Measured Deception." Review of The Measure of All Things: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder, Discover, Nov. 2002, p. 77.

Freedland, Jonathan. Review of 1984, by George Orwell, Independent, 2 July 2015, www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/1984-by-george-orwell-book-of-a-lifetime-an-absorbing-deeply-affecting-political-thriller-10360789.html.

Groskop, Viv. "Chinese Torture - at Five." Review of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn Harrison, International Express, 6 June 2000, Canadian edition, p. 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. "Huck's Ironic Circle." Review of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, edited by. Harold Bloom, Chelsea, 1986, pp. 31-44.

Howell, Peter. "A Coming of Rage Tale." Review of Stoker, directed by Park Chan-wook, Toronto Star, 1 Mar. 2013, pp. E1+.

Iragui, Vicente. Review of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, compiled and edited by Narinder Kapur, New England Journal of Medicine, 26 Feb. 1998, pp.629-30.

Neier, Aryeh. "Hero." Review of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books, 13 Jan. 2005, pp. 30-33.

Onstad, Katrina. "A Life of Pain and Paint." Review of Frida, directed by Julie Taymor, National Post [Toronto], 1 Nov. 2002, pp. PM1+.

Pigliucci, Massimo. "Have We Solved Darwin's Dilemma?" Review of The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin's Dilemma, by Marc W. Kirschner and John C. Gerhart, American Scientist, May-June 2006, pp. 272-274.

Redekop, Magdalene. "The Importance of Being Mennonite." Review of  A Complicated Kindness, by Miriam Toew, Literary Review of Canada, Oct. 2004, pp. 19-20.

Simic, Charles. "The Image Hunter." Review of  Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by Diane Waldman, New York Review, 24 Oct. 2002, pp. 14+.

11. Bible, Scripture:

When citing the Bible, give the abbreviated name of the Book of the Bible, then chapter and verse numbers rather than page numbers. See also: Abbreviations of Books of the Bible.

King James Bible: 400th Anniversary Edition, Oxford, 2010, Mt 12:1-8.

12. Government publication, Corporate author, Titles of laws, Legislative bills, reports and resolutions:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government. 2) Agency. 3) Title of publication, italicized. 4) Publisher. 5) Date.

Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. GPO, 2000.

Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, skip most of the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example - for the following record:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record, Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. 

It may be adequate to cite as:

United States. Congressional Record. 31 July 1996, Public Law 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see 2.1.3 Corporate Authors in MLA Handbook Eighth Edition.

13. Twitter or Facebook:

Dani@dsayegh21. "Guiness book of world records - RIGGED - everybody knows I have the world record for everything - many people have said it - #trumpbookreport." Twitter, 23 Oct. 2016, 7:43 p.m., twitter.com/dsayegh21/status/790383101197242368.

Ganesh Kumar Radha Udayakumar. "Twitterati invent hilarious Trump 'book reports'." Facebook, 21 Oct. 2016, 10:33 p.m. IST, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/united-states-elections-2016-us-elections-news-results-polls/Now-TrumpBookReports-inundate-Twitter/articleshow/54982545.cms.

14. Booklet, pamphlet, brochure, or press release with and without author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. LifeScan Canada, 1997.

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Springbank, 1994.

15. Numbers, Alphabetizing numerals, Roman numerals:

If the title begins with a numeral, alphabetize the title as if the numeral is spelled out. The following title would be alphabetized under "Twelve":

12 Angry Men. Directed by Sidney Lumet, performance by Henry Fonda, Lee J. Cobb, and Martin Balsam, MGM, 1957, www.imdb.com/title/tt0050083/fullcredits?ref_=tt_ql_1

Use upper case Roman numerals for suffixes for names of individuals and primary divisions of an outline. Use lower case Roman numerals to cite pages of books as exactly shown in print or online.

Martin Luther King III

Part II

xxv-xxix    [for pp. 25-29 written in Roman numerals]

16. Title or name of person in a foreign language:

(Will add examples later).

17. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.

GEICO. Newsweek, 16 Jan. 2006, p. 92.

Infiniti. Globe and Mail [Toronto], 15 July 2009, theglobeandmail.com.

Starbucks. USA Today, 24 June 2014, p. 4A.

TD Canada Trust. Metro [Toronto], 9 Sept. 2015, p. 11.

Toyota. Atlantic Monthly, Jan.-Feb. 2005, pp. 27-30.

WhereYouShop.com. Website, Nov. 2011, p. 17.

18. Drama, Plays, Poetry


19. DVDs, CDs, Audio recording, Film, Television, Video, Speeches, Lectures, Live presentations

TIME-BASED MEDIA
For works in time-based media, cite the times as given separating the number with colons, e.g. 40:30 min. Time-based media are "works of art that could change meaningfully with respect to time, e.g. a video, experimental film or audio - anything that depends on technology." ~ What on earth is time-based media?

Do not use short forms. Spell out in full: arr. (arranged by), dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers, performed by), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with the name of that person.

August Rush: An Incredible Journey Moving at the Speed of Sound. Directed by Kristen Sheridan, produced by Richard Barton Lewis, performance by Freddie Highmore, Keri Russell, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Terrence Howard, and Robin Williams, Warner, 2007.

Burton, Tim, director. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl, performance by Johnny Depp, Warner, 2005.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Directed by Tim Burton, based on book by Roald Dahl, performance by Johnny Depp, Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, performer. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Directed by Tim Burton, based on book by Roald Dahl, Warner, 2005.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Education edition, Microsoft, 2003.

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Directed by Steven Spielberg, produced by Frank Marshall, written by George Lucas, performance by Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett, Karen Allen, and Shia LaBeouf, Paramount, 2008.

Into the Woods. Screenplay by James Lapine, directed by Rob Marshall, performance by Meryl Streep, Emily Blunt, James Corden, Anna Kendrick, Chris Pine, and Johnny Depp, Disney, 2014.

Landler, Mark. "Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times, late edition- final edition, DIALOG File 472, item 03072065 197653951002, 2 Oct. 1995.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. "Racism and the Landfill." Chronicle-Herald,  B1. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups, Vol. 4. Art. 42, 7 Mar. 1992,

Links 2003: Championship Courses. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.

Monster-in-Law. Directed by Robert Luketic, written by Anya Kochoff, produced by Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink, performance by Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda, New Line, 2005.

Nanny McPhee. Directed by Kirk Jones, based on Nurse Matilda Books written by Christianna Brand, produced by Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner, performance by Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury, Universal, 2005.

One Hour Photo. Written and directed by Mark Romanek, produced by Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski, performance by Robin Williams, Fox Searchlight, 2002.

A Place in the Sun. Directed by George Stevens, Paramount, 2001.

Titanic. Dirrected, written, produced, and edited by James Cameron, produced by Jon Landau, performance by Kate Winslet and Leonardo DiCaprio, Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo. Directed by Kevin Donovan, produced by John H. Williams and Adam Schroeder, performance by Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt, DreamWorks, 2002.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, Tele-Direct, 1998.

23. Online databases, Online forums, eBooks
21. Websites, Online citations, URL or Web address

Basic components of an Internet citation:

1) Name of author, editor, compiler, translator, director, narrator, performer.  

2) Title of article or Web page title in quotation marks if work is part of larger work, but italicized if work is independent. 

3) Title of  Website, Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, Project, or Work - Italicized if work is independent.

4) Edition or version, e.g. Editorial, late edition, early edition.

4) Publisher, sponsor or editor of Website or Project. 

5) Date of publication, site creation date, revision date, posting date, last update, or date last modified. 

6) Medium of publication - URL or DOI.

Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or Web site, and carry on. If your Internet reference has no author stated, begin your citation with the title.

Walid, Tamara, and Jeremy Gaunt. "Dubai Struggles to Ease Default Fears." Reuters, 26 Nov. 2009, www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/dubai-struggles-to-ease-default-fears/article1378116/.

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. "IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada." Public Policy, 2004, www.ppforum.ca/sites/default/files/it_outsourcing.pdf.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

2017 Ford Focus. Ford Motor Company, 2016, www.ford.ca/cars/focus/?searchid=71700000010193630&gclid=CM_x3_XTyNACFZIBaQodQnEDeQ

Roche. Modern Medicine. Opthalmology Times, 2016, ophthalmologytimes.modernmedicine.com/ote.

Infiniti. Globe and Mail [Toronto], 15 July 2009, theglobeandmail.com.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database, study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to Formalize One-Child Policy." Asia Times Online, 24 May 2001, www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html.

David, Cynthia. "Carrots in All the Colours of the Rainbow." TheStar.com, 15 July 2009, www.thestar.com/life/2009/07/15/carrots_in_all_the_colours_of_the_rainbow.html.

Kujtan, Peter W. "A True Guiding Principle of Health." A Research Guide for Students, 9 Jan. 2013, www.bydewey.com/drksugars.html.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Princess Diana Biography: The 'People's Princess'." Women's History, 29 July 2016, http://womenshistory.about.com/od/diana/p/princess_diana.htm.

MacIsaac, Tara. "'Ice Man' on a Mission to Scientifically Prove Power of Mind." Epoch Times, 1 Nov. 2014, www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1056153-ice-man-on-a-mission-to-scientifically-prove-power-of-mind/.

Nicholas, Peter. "Donald Trump Gives Mitt Romney a Second Interview for Diplomatic Post." Wall Street Journal, 28 Nov. 2016, www.wsj.com/articles/donald-trump-gives-mitt-romney-a-second-interview-for-diplomatic-post-1480379550

Reguly, Eric, and Greg Keenan. "Fiat to Chrysler: Cut Costs or We Walk." Globeandmail.com, 15 Apr. 2009,  www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/fiat-to-chrysler-cut-costs-or-we-walk/article1196423/50.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

"Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC)." Encyclopædia Britannica, 14 Sept. 2012, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Royal-Shakespeare-Company.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter or newspaper with no author stated:

"50 Top Email Solution Providers & Automated Marketing Systems." WebsiteMagazine.com, Sept. 2013, www.websitemagazine.com/content/blogs/posts/pages/top-50-email-solution-providers.aspx.

"Vegetarians Find Paradise in Taiwan." Taiwan Today, 23 Jan, 2017, www.taiwantoday.tw/index.php.

"Dunelm Buys Kiddicare in Online Drive." BBC News, 28 Nov. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/business-38128229.

e. Internet citation for an article in a magazine or scholarly journal:

2017 Chevrolet Cruze. Consumer Reports, 2016, www.consumerreports.org/cro/chevrolet-cruze.htm.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues, vol. 58, no. 2, 17 Dec. 2002, pp. 265-280, DOI: 10.1111/1540-4560.00260.

Woodhull, Victoria C. "And the Truth Shall Make You Free: A Speech on the Principles of Social Freedom." Gifts of Speech, 20 Nov. 1871, gos.sbc.edu/w/woodhull.html

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, video, etc.:

Beethoven, Ludwig van. "Moonlight Sonata." YouTube, 15 Dec. 2010, www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Tr0otuiQuU.

"Mapping the Emergence of the Islamic State in Afghanistan." Long War Journal (LWJ), 25 Mar. 2015, www.longwarjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/IS_Map_Afg.jpg.

Schulz, Charles. "Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock." Pinterest: Charlie Brown and Snoopy, Nov. 2016, s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/e1/b5/f5/e1b5f57f63e00a02b852ac6051f31741.jpg.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling, EBSCOhost Mailer. Received by E. Interior, 11 May 2007.

Digital Brain. "Dear, Sir, Please check attachment." Received by IT Muhammad Ibrahiem, 28 Nov. 2016.

PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." Received by I. Lee, 3 June 2009.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. "Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector." Dec. 2002, www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_200212_09_e_12403.html .

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. "The Constitution of the United States. The Bill of rights & All Amendments." 17 Sept. 1787, constitutionus.com/.

i. Internet citation for a speech, conference paper, online posting, forum, or letter to the editor:

Delphy, Christine. "A War for Afghan Women?" Keynote address, Townsville International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia,  3-7 July 2002, peuplesmonde.net/2003/08/25/a-war-for-afghan-women/.

McGinty, Jo Craven. "Turns Out, Counting on Your Fingers Makes You Smarter." Wall Street Journal, 21 Oct. 2016, www.wsj.com/articles/smarter-1477065563

Seaside Harry. "My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!" PriusOnline.com Forum Index - Prius - Technical, 29 Apr. 2007, www.priusonline.com/9-toyota-prius-technical-chat/15017-my-friend-drove-my-car-parking-brake.html.

j. Internet citation for a web page from an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

"Gloria Steinem." Power Quotes. Wisdom Quotes by Jone Johnson Lewis, 1995-2016, www.wisdomquotes.com/authors/gloria-steinem/.

The MAD Scientist Network. Center for Excellence in Education, 2016, www.cee.org/mad-scientist-network.

O'Connor, John Joseph, and Edmund Frederick Robertson. "Ten years of the History of Mathematics on the Web." OCTOGON Mathematical Magazine, 2005, pp. 102-107, risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/ten-years-of-the-history-of-mathematics-on-the-web(5373e65e-e999-42f2-aaba-0c5aa0f1d4ca).html

Officer, Lawrence H. "Exchange Rates Between the United States Dollar and Forty-one Currencies." MeasuringWorth, 2016, www.measuringworth.com/exchangeglobal/.

Savill, R. Richard. "Jazz Age Biographies." The Jazz Age Page, 23 Oct. 2000, www.ucdsb.on.ca/school/rua/.../teacherpages/.../Zubyck.../CGGsummative20102011

Sullivan, Danny. "Search Engine Math." Search Engine Watch, 25 Oct. 2001, searchenginewatch.com/sew/how-to/2065976/search-engine-math.

Ben-Meir, Alon. "Israeli-Hamas Truce: An Opportunity in Disguise." Huffington Post, 21 Aug. 2015, www.huffingtonpost.com/alon-benmeir/israeli-hamas-truce-an-op_b_8020396.html.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

RAMeSize. Version 1.04. Blue Dice Software, Sept. 2000, download.cnet.com/RAMeSize/3000-2162_4-10049761.html.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address. 19 Nov. 1863." The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Edited by Roy P. Basler, Rutgers UP, 1953, vol. 7, pp. 22-23, teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/gettysburg-address/.

m. Internet citation for a work translated and/or edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Translated and edited by Albert C. Outler, 1955, Southern Methodist U, Digitized 14 Aug. 1999, wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/1001-1100/HDM1023.pdf.

Galen. On the Natural Faculties: Book Two. Translated by Arthur John Brock, Medicina Antiqua, U College London, 1916, www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/tr_GalNatFac2.html.

24. Twitter, Facebook, Blogs, Email messages, PowerPoint

Dani@dsayegh21. "Guiness book of world records - RIGGED - everybody knows I have the world record for everything - many people have said it - #trumpbookreport." Twitter, 23 Oct. 2016, 7:43 p.m., twitter.com/dsayegh21/status/790383101197242368.

Ganesh Kumar Radha Udayakumar. "Twitterati invent hilarious Trump 'book reports'." Facebook, 21 Oct. 2016, 10:33 p.m. IST, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/united-states-elections-2016-us-elections-news-results-polls/Now-TrumpBookReports-inundate-Twitter/articleshow/54982545.cms.

Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling, EBSCOhost Mailer. Received by E. Interior, 11 May 2007.

Digital Brain. "Dear, Sir, Please check attachment." Received by IT Muhammad Ibrahiem, 28 Nov. 2016.

PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." Received by I. Lee, 3 June 2009.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview by Lionel Barber. Financial Times, 29 June 2012, https://www.ft.com/content/b2ec4fd6-c0af-11e1-9372-00144feabdc0.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview by Thomas A. Sancton and Christopher Redman. Time, 11 Dec. 1995, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983832,00.html

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview, 27 Nov. 2016.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 22 June 2016.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston, 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:

Wilson-Smith, Anthony. "Hello, He Must Be Going." Editorial. Maclean's, 26 Aug. 2002, p. 4.

Letter to the Editor:

Davidson, Bruce. "Re-Test All Drivers Every 5 Years." Letter. Re: Don't Target Seniors, Editorial 23 Feb. 2013, Toronto Star, 1 Mar. 2013, p. A18.

Full, Jerome. "Diminishing Palm Coast." Letter. Daytona Beach News-Journal, 15 Jan. 2009, p. 4A.

Lange, Rick. "U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded." Letter. Buffalo News, 23 Jan. 2005, p. I5.

Lim, Steven. "It's the Parents Job." Letter. Mississauga News, 17 Sept. 2005, p. 6.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter. New Yorker, 13 Jan. 2003, pp. 33-37.

Patrick, E.A. "Property Investors Created Deficit: Paying for Their Greed." Letter. Orlando Sentinel, 28 Dec. 2008, p. A18.

Schultz, Herb. "Nixing the Niqab." Letter. National Post [Toronto], 4 Apr. 2015, p. A15.

Stasiulis, Ray. "Obama Has Already Turned Fear into Hope." Letter. Toronto Star, 24 Jan. 2009, p. AA5.

Reply to a letter to the Editor:

Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star, 29 Sept. 2002, p. A1.

A letter you received from John Smith:

MS for a manuscript written by hand. TS for a typescript prepared by machine.

Smith, John. Letter to the author, 3 June 2009, MS.

Published letter in a collection:

Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord." Letter to Charles L. Webster, 18 Mar. 1885, Letter 850318 of Mark Twain, Edited by Jim Zwick. 2005, www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318.html.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with unknown author or no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map if not indicated by title.

2014 Andex Chart. Andex Associates, 2014.

Canada. Map. Canadian Geographic, 2003.

"Dallas TX." 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Michelin, 2005.

28. Musical composition, musical scores:

Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Italicize the title of ballet, music, opera, as well as op. and no., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. When used as descriptions, form, number and key are not italicized. 3) Date composition written (if known). 4) Publisher. 5) Date of publication. 7) Page number or numbers.

Note: The word "Nocturne", meaning a gentle piece of classical music, is a Form and not a Title, hence it is not italicized if used as a description in a citation for musical composition. However, in the following two examples, the scores are part of a collection and are treated as works in anthologies.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. "Für Elise." Masterpieces of Piano Music, Edited by Albert E. Wier, Fischer, 1918, pp. 48-52.

Chopin, Frédéric. "Nocturne, Op. 9, No. 2." Masterpieces of Piano Music, Edited by Albert E. Wier, Fischer, 1918, pp. 68-69.

Huff, Mac, arr. Fiddler on the Roof. Winona, MN: Leonard, 1984. Print. Scores.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936, Spencer, 1950.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819, Harris, 1933.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, italicized. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Medium. 5) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection. 6) City where artwork, museum, gallery, or collection is located.

Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966, Sculpture, McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909, Stone, Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC], Limestone statue, Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814, Oil on canvas, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11, Fresco, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36, Stone sculptural relief, Arc de Triomphe, Paris.

Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, italicized. 3) Date artwork created. If date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503. 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house. 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Publisher. 9) Date of publication. 10) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.

Abell, Sam. Japan, 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones by Leah Bendavid-Val, et al., National Geographic, 1999, p. 232.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village, [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, The McMichael Canadian Art Collection by Jean Blodgett, et al., McGraw, 1989, p. 134.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal, [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath, A Basic History of Art by H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, Prentice, 1991, p. 412.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda), [c. 1503-5], Louvre Museum, Paris, Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum, Abbeville, 1979, p. 31.

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, The Great Masters by Giorgio Vasari, Translated by Gaston Du C. de Vere, Park Lane, 1986, p. 226.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. Red-brick office building, St. Louis, MO, A Basic History of Art by H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson, Prentice, 1991, p. 408.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan, Náprstek Museum, Prague, The World of Masks by Erich Herold, et al., Translated by Duan Zbavitel, Hamlyn, 1992, p. 207.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque, Lisbon, Edited by Rolf Toman, Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Könemann, 1998, p. 118.

Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not italicized or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken.

The Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by C. Wyse, 28 July 2014.

30. Patent:

Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent, italicized. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. 5) URL or DOI if from website.

Arbter, Klaus. Process and System for Programming Robot Movements.US Patent 4677568 A, 30 June 1987, www.google.ch/patents/US4677568.

Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie. German Patent 3943917, July 1996.

Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.US Patent 5078813, 27 Sept. 1988.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. Transportation Vehicles and Methods. US Patent 5971091, 26 Oct. 1999, www.google.com/patents/US5971091

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney's The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Directed by Julie Taymor, Music and Lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice, Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto, 9 June 2002.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Directed by Kim Selody, Performance by Herbie Barnes, Michael Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl, Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, 20 Apr. 2002.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Choreography and Libretto by James Kudelka, Conducted by Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer, National Ballet of Canada, Hummingbird Centre, Toronto, 30 Dec. 1999.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart, Directed by Harold Prince, Based on novel by Gaston Leroux, Pantages Theatre, Toronto, 20 Sept. 1998.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, 4 Mar. 2005.

Shaolin Warriors: The Kung Fu Masters of China. By China Performing Arts Agency Productions. Sony Centre for the Performing Arts, Toronto, 23 Nov. 2012.

The Sound of Music. Music by Richard Rodgers. Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, Directed by Jeremy Sams, Produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber, David Ian, and David Mirvish, Based on book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse, Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto, 5 Sept. 2009.

32. Radio, television broadcast:

Components: 1) Title of episode or segment (in quotes). 2) Title of program (italicized). 3) Name of network. 4) Call letters and city of local station. 5) Date of broadcast. 6) Additional info.

The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB, Toronto, 12 Sept. 2003.

Law and Order. Produced by Wolf Film, Universal. NBC Television Network, WHEC, Rochester, NY, 16 Oct. 2002.

"New Threat from Osama?" By Jim Stewart. CBS News, WBEN, Buffalo, 13 Nov. 2002.

"New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein." By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York, WBFO, Buffalo, 13 Nov. 2002.

"The Nightmare Drug." By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate, CBC, Toronto, 16 Oct. 2002.

"UFOs: Questions & Controversy." By Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN, Los Angeles, 18 Jan. 2008.

"U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden." AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side. WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

33. Recording - Music CD, LP (Long Playing record), magnetic tape:

Components: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (italicized). 4) Edition, release, or version. 5) Publisher, Date of publication. .

Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium, Exclusive Management by The Firm, Los Angeles, CA, Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC, Zomba, 1999.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. Written, directed and produced by Marilyn Reesor Burch, Choirs directed by Don and Catherine Robertson, Power Plant Recording Studio, 1997.

McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. Produced by Michael McDonald and Ted Templeman, Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone, Warner Bros, 1985.

Mitchell, Joni. Both Sides Now. Reprise Records, Time Warner, Warner Music Canada, 2000.

Streisand, Barbra. "Memory: The Theme from Andrew Lloyd Weber's Musical <i>Cats</i>." <i>Memories</i>. Don Mills, ON: CBS Records Canada, Columbia, 1981.

ZZ Top Afterburner. Produced by Bill Ham. Songs writtten by Billy Gibbons, Dusty Hill, and Frank Beard. Houston, Warner Bros, 1985.

34. Software on floppy disk:

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Version 1.0. IBM, 1998.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital disc), Videocassette, Filmstrip:

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Simon, Audio Division, 1995.

Ginger. Solid Ground. Tape recording from album Far Out, Nettwerk, 1994.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. Warner, 2004. DVD.

Jane Austen's Emma. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Videocassette.

Kicking & Screaming. Directed by Jesse Dylan. Written by Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick, Performance by Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall, Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Directed by Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by Ann Brashares, Performance by Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel, Warner, Dungaree, 2005.

Super Searching the Web. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, 1997.

The Wizard of Oz. Directed by Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum, Performance by Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins, MGM, 1939, Warner, 1999.

36. Unpublished dissertations, theses:

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.

Elmendorf, James. "The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California." BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.

Jackson, Marjorie. "The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use." Diss. Columbia U, 1962.

Italicize title if dissertation is published:

Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of Washington, 1985.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.

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