A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Chapter 6. Plagiarism:
How to Avoid It

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1. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 7th ed
2. How to Format a Research Paper in MLA Style, 6th ed
3. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 7th ed.
4. Quoting Passages Using MLA Style, 6th ed.
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7. Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style, 6th ed.
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11. How to Write Parenthetical Documentation in MLA Style, 6th ed.
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According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the unauthorized use of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own" (508).

"To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism. To steal from many is research."
This is an example of a paraprosdokian. Based on quote from Wilson Mizner:
"If you copy from one author, it's plagiarism. If you copy from two, it's research."

To avoid plagiarism, all students must document sources properly using Footnotes, Endnotes, or Parenthetical References, and must write a Bibliography, References, or Works Cited page and place it at the end of the research paper to list the sources used. Of the three ways to document sources - Footnotes, Endnotes, and Parenthetical References, the simplest is using Parenthetical References, sometimes referred to as Parenthetical Documentation or Parenthetical Citations.

Verify which type of documentation is preferred by your teacher. Most word processors have superscript, Footnote and Endnote capability. If you are required to use Footnotes or Endnotes, it is well worth the effort to master this feature on the computer a few days before your paper is due.

If you use Parenthetical References you only need to put a short reference enclosed in parentheses immediately after the citation, then list the sources cited in your Bibliography, Works Cited or References page at the end of your paper. See Chapter 9 for Parenthetical References Examples as well as Parenthetical References Sample Page.

If you use Footnote references, you must have numerically superscripted Footnote references at the foot of the same page where your citations are located, plus you must add a Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page at the end of your paper unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Footnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Footnotes, and Footnotes - Sample Page.

If you use Endnote references, your citation within the text of your paper is the same as your Footnote citation, but you must list your Endnote references at the end of your paper in superscripted numerical order on a separate page entitled Endnotes. You must still add a Bibliography, Works Cited or References page after your Endnotes page unless instructed otherwise by your teacher or instructor. See Chapter 7 How to Write Endnotes, Chapter 8 Examples of First Endnotes, and Endnotes - Sample Page.

Do not be tempted to get someone else to write your research paper, hand in the same essay to two or more different teachers, or purchase instant essays from the Web. Do not download information from CD-ROMs or someone else's original work off the Internet and directly incorporate such information into your essay without paraphrasing and acknowledging its source. Apart from being unethical, dishonest, and learning nothing in the process, your teacher probably knows you and your writing style too well for you to plagiarize successfully. Most secondary schools, colleges, and universities take a dim view at plagiarism which is becoming more rampant with prevalent use of the Internet. Technology has made it too easy for students to search and click for an essay and simply pay with a valid credit card for an instant download online. Consequences may be severe when students are caught plagiarizing. What is more, detection services now exist such as MyDropBox.com, Glatt Plagiarism Services and Turnitin that are capable of catching culprits guilty of plagiarism.

A page entitled Works Cited, References, or Bibliography at the end of your paper is an absolute MUST for any serious research paper.

For further information on plagiarism, check out the following sites:

Academic Integrity. Guide for Students from University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
What is Academic Integrity?
What is plagiarism?
How do I avoid plagiarism?
What is referencing?
Why should I reference?
Achieving good academic practice.
Glossary. Including definitions of Annotated bibliography, Bibliography, Citation (in-text), Collusion, Common knowledge, Endnotes, Footnotes, Paraphrase, Plagiarism, Quote, Reference, Reference list (also called works cited), Secondary citation, Source, Summary.

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers by Professor Robert A. Harris, Vanguard University of Southern California.

Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism from The Graduate Centre, City University of New York.

Avoiding Plagiarism from theWriter's Handbook, University of Wisconsin.

Avoiding Plagiarism from Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. "Plagiarism is a form of fraud. You plagiarize if you present other writers' words or ideas as your own."

Avoiding Plagiarism. Handout from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL), West Lafayette, IN. See also: Writing a Research Paper: Plagiarism, Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.

Cheating 101: Paper Mills and You by Margaret Fain and Peggy Bates. How to locate Paper Mills, detect plagiarized papers, track down suspicious papers, and combat plagiarism.

Cheats are having a field day on campus. "When a quarter of students plagiarise, universities need to start taking tougher action," says Frank Furedi, Professor of Sociology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK.

Copyright and Fair Use from Stanford University Libraries. Contents: Copyright FAQs, Fair Use, The Public Domain, Introduction to the Permissions Process, Website Permissions, Academic and Educational Permissions, Releases, and Copyright Research.

Copyright and Fair Use in the Classroom, on the Internet, and the World Wide Web from Information & Library Services, University of Maryland University College (UMUC).

Copyright Issues on the Web 2. What Is Plagiarism? By Kristina Pfaff-Harris, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

Defining Plagiarism, Academic Dishonesty from Pennsylvania State University.

Essay mill from Wikipedia. "An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud."

Free Online Plagiarism Checker - Duplichecker.com. Free plagiarism software for students, teachers, seo community.

Ethics: Avoiding Plagiarism from George Fox University.

Examples of Plagiarism from Princeton University. "Verbatim plagiarism, or unacknowledged direct quotation. Lifting selected passages and phrases without proper acknowledgment. Paraphrasing the text while maintaining the basic paragraph and sentence structure. A note on plagiarism in computer programs."

Facts about Plagiarism from Plagiarism.org. Plagiarism definitions, Tips on avoiding plagiarism.

Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials from eHow. Fair Use Section of Copyright Law by Holly Keeran, eHow Contributor.

Focus on Ethics Can Curb Cheating, Colleges Find by Kenneth R. Weiss, Times Education Writer.

George Mason University Honor System and Code. Honor Code and Plagiarism statement. What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism and the Internet, Copyright Resources.

Handouts and Links: Plagiarism. This handout explains what plagiarism is and outlines steps students can follow to avoid plagiarizing.

Honor Code and Plagiarism from Stanford University.

How Not to Plagiarize from University of Toronto.

How to avoid plagiarism from Writing Center, University of Wisconsin.

Introduction Plagiarism Tutorial Library Research Guides from Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY.

MyDropBox.com uses leading technology to detect and prevent cases of Internet plagiarism.

The New Plagiarism: Seven Antidotes to Prevent Highway Robbery in an Electronic Age by Jamie McKenzie, Editor of From Now On - The Educational Technology Journal.

Plagiarism from Harvard System of Referencing Guide, Anglia Ruskin University Library, Cambridge & Chelmsford, UK.

Plagiarism from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Other Plagiarism Guides for Instructors from Pennsylvania State University. Academic Integrity. Academic Integrity is defined as "the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner." Examples of Academic Dishonesty, When Academic Dishonesty is suspected, Academic Sanctions, Disciplinary Sanctions that may be assigned, Helpful Hints include: Take time to understand the expectations for each assignment.

Plagiarism and Academic Honesty - Policy from University of Sydney, Australia. (Printout in English or Chinese).

What Is Plagiarism from University of Sydney, Australia.

Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism from Trinity Western University.

Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism from National University.

Plagiarism and the Web by Bruce Leland, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.

Plagiarism.com. Glatt Plagiarism Services. A tutorial software program designed to teach students about plagiarism, how to avoid it, and how to detect it in their writing.

A Plagiarism Guide for Students from WhoIsHostingThis.com.

Plagiarism Guides from Australian Help. "In academic writing, it is considered plagiarism to draw any idea or any language from someone else without adequately crediting that source in your paper." Topics covered include: Verbatim plagiarism, Mosaic plagiarism, Inadequate paraphrase, Uncited paraphrase, Uncited quotations, Using material from another student's work.

Plagiarism in Colleges in USA by Dr. Ronald B. Standler, Attorney in Massachusetts. Plagiarism viewed from a legal perspective. Cites plagiarism cases, and finds that in every plagiarism case involving a student or a professor the court upheld the punishment imposed by the college.

Plagiarism Policy from School of Public Affairs and Administration (SPAA) Rutgers University - Newark, NJ. Rutgers University Academic Integrity Policy.

Plagiarism Thread. Review by William Marsh of National University, San Diego. Topics include: Guarding Against / Avoiding Plagiarism; Assessment & Response; Cultural, Economic and/or Educational Backgrounds of Students; Pedagogical, Aesthetic and Ethical Values underlying Plagiarism; Copyright Violation & Plagiarism.

Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It from Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Contents: What is Plagiarism and Why is it Important? How Can Students Avoid Plagiarism? How to Recognize Unacceptable and Acceptable Paraphrases. Plagiarism and the World Wide Web. Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism.

Plagiarism.org Learning Center. What Is Plagiarism? Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism FAQs: Copyright laws, Public domain, Common knowledge, Fair use, Punishment for plagiarism, and more. What Is Citation? Plagiarism and the Internet.

A Statement on Plagiarism from Indiana University.

University-wide statement on plagiarism from University of Cambridge.

Student Guide to Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism in the Classroom and Online by Matt Ashare, OnlineEducation.com. What Is Plagiarism? Definitions of Plagiarism. Types of Plagiarism. Plagiarism in Online Education. Tools for Detecting Plagiarism. Examples of Plagiarism. Penalties for Plagiarism. How to Avoid Plagiarism. Plagiarism Resources and Safe Practices for Students. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices for Faculty. Plagiarism Resources and Best Practices in Online Education. Plagiarism in the News.

Synthesis: Using the Work of Others from University of Maine at Farmington Writing Center / Mantor Library Anti-Plagiarism Website.

Turnitin.com - software that aims to put a stop to digital plagiarism. Provides information on plagiarism prevention.

Understanding Plagiarism from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. What Is Plagiarism at Indiana University? A short quiz with immediate feedback, and How to Recognize Plagiarism.

What Can We Do to Curb Student Cheating? Article by Sharon Cromwell, Education World® .

What Is Plagiarism. Handout to help students understand what is acceptable, prepared by Dr Scott Van Bramer, Professor and Chair of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Widener University, Chester, PA.

You Quote It, You Note It! An interactive tutorial on Plagiarism, from Vaughan Memorial Library, Acadia University. What you will learn in this tutorial: The difference between paraphrasing and quoting, and how to do both properly. When to cite, what to cite, and how to cite. Even if it's unintentional, plagiarism is still a serious academic offence. What's documenting? Things that are considered "common knowledge" do not need to be cited, and more.